In theory, pharyngeal patency should be maintained during high output to the phrenic and hypoglossal
The vagal, hypoglossal
, glossopharyngeal, and sympathetic are the most commonly involved nerves.
CN IX-XI exit the cranial vault through the jugular foramen, whereas CN XII leaves from the hypoglossal
canal close to the occipital condyle.
For example, nanosized ferritin and iron-dextran, after injection into the tongue of mice, labeled the neurons of the hypoglossal
nuclei, and injection of both of these NSPs into facial muscles of mice also resulted in synaptic uptake; cationized ferritin was also detected in cell bodies of facial neurons, indicating that electrical charge is of importance for incorporation into axons and axonal transport (Arvidson 1994; Malmgren et al.
Method patents provide Cyberonics with the exclusive right to manufacture or sell a product in the United States which applies a pulsed electrical signal to the vagus, hypoglossal
or trigeminal nerve for the treatment of a variety of chronic disorders," commented Robert P.
Current approaches include a hypoglossal
to facial nerve anastamosis, which may still not restore complete nerve function.
facial trochlear optic phrenic axon dendrite occipital hypoglossal
frontal mandibular nasociliary ophthalmic tibial laryngeal hillock bouton median splanchnic hypogastric femoral genitofemoral plexus pudendal myelin trigeminal abducens oculomotor vagus glossopharyngeal vestibulocochlear accessory auricular maxillary lacrimal supraorbital ethmoidal peroneal endoneurium synapse ganglion antebrachial acetylcholine ramus iliohypogastric subcostal obturator ilioinguinal oligodendrocyte nerve astrocyte
canals, a pair of bony tubes located on the left and right sides of the skull's base, were nominated just last year as skeletal signposts of speech.
The aura6000 was selected by editors from Neurotech Reports for its proprietary targeted hypoglossal
neurostimulation (THN) sleep therapy.
A New Treatment for Sleep Apnea: Hypoglossal
Nerve Stimulation" will be presented by Ryan Soose, MD at the 21[sup.
Her background included the diagnosis of idiopathic unilateral vagal and hypoglossal
nerve palsies 4 years previously, with normal magnetic resonance imaging (MR1).
Apnex has created an implantable medical gadget, dubbed as the Hypoglossal
Nerve Stimulation System (HGNSR), in order to treat obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) of the patients.