Hypoglossal Nerve

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hypoglossal nerve

[¦hī·pə¦gläs·əl ′nərv]
The twelfth cranial nerve; a paired motor nerve in tetrapod vertebrates innervating tongue muscles; corresponds to the hypobranchial nerve in fishes.

Hypoglossal Nerve


the 12th pair of cranial nerves. The hypoglossal nerve originates from the nerve cells that form its motor nucleus, which are located in the brain stem at the medulla oblongata. The appendages of the nerve cells unite in ten to 15 rootlets between the pyramid and the olive. Upon merging in a common trunk, they depart from the skull through the hypoglossal canal into the occipital bone. After leaving the skull, the hypoglossal nerve forms an arch and, at the anterior end of the hyoglossal muscle, branches into terminal branches, which innervate the musculature of the tongue. When a disorder of hypoglossal nerve exists, the corresponding half of the tongue becomes paralyzed, and the tongue muscles atrophy.

References in periodicals archive ?
At follow-up after 15 months, both the glossopharyngeal and hypoglossal nerve paralysis had resolved, and vocal fold motions on the left also had resumed.
Tapia syndrome is an extremely localized lesion where the vagus and hypoglossal nerves cross.
Meanwhile, the hypoglossal nerve runs medial to the IXth, Xth, and XIth cranial nerves after its exit from the cranium.
The patient was advised that sacrifice of the lingual arteries and hypoglossal nerves bilaterally might be required in order to achieve complete tumor resection, and consent was obtained for possible total glossectomy.
Intraoperative findings confirmed tumor involvement of the left lingual artery and hypoglossal nerve, both of which were sacrificed.
Although this affords wide access to the clivus and upper cervical spine, it poses a risk to the lingual and hypoglossal nerves.