hypoglycemia

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Related to hypoglycaemia: hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, hyperglycaemia, diabetes, hypoglycemia unawareness

hypoglycemia:

see diabetesdiabetes
or diabetes mellitus
, chronic disorder of glucose (sugar) metabolism caused by inadequate production or use of insulin, a hormone produced in specialized cells (beta cells in the islets of Langerhans) in the pancreas that allows the body to use and store
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.

Hypoglycemia

 

a decrease in the sugar content of the blood to below 80-70 mg percent.

Hypoglycemia is found in healthy persons during heightened muscular activity as a result of the considerable expenditure of glucose as an energy source when the body’s energy loss is not replenished with readily assimilable carbohydrates. Hypoglycemia sometimes arises after heavy intake of carbohydrates as a result of the reflex secretion by the pancreas of an excessive amount of insulin. The condition is observed in certain diseases of the insular apparatus of the pancreas, the hypothalamic region of the brain, the other endocrine glands, or the liver (disruption of the liver’s function as the principal glycogen depot), as well as in insulin overdose (hypoglycemic shock). In hypoglycemic shock, after a short period of central nervous system excitation, a condition develops that is accompanied by weakness, drowsiness, hunger, and psychic disturbances. Trembling, loss of consciousness, and convulsions may set in when sugar content is lowered to 40 percent or less. The condition is eliminated by administering glucose. Hypoglycemic or insulin shock may be induced artificially for the treatment of certain diseases.

REFERENCES

Genes, S. G. Gipoglikemiia: Gipoglikemiche skii simptomokompleks. Moscow, 1970. (Bibliography, pp. 224-35.)

hypoglycemia

[¦hī·pō‚glī′sē·mē·ə]
(medicine)
Condition caused by low levels of sugar in the blood.
References in periodicals archive ?
in controlling glycaemic parameters and rates of hypoglycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes stratified according to baseline HbA[sub.
Following hypoglycaemia, insulintreated patients with diabetes had an approximately 60 percent higher risk of cardiovascular events, and were twice as likely to die over the same period as patients who did not experience hypoglycaemia, the findings showed.
Professors Kamlesh Khunti and Melanie Davies, scientists from the University of Leicester's Diabetes Research Centre, have confirmed an association between hypoglycaemia and an increased risk of cardiovascular events and mortality in insulin-treated patients with diabetes, which could lead to changes in the way some patients' treatment is managed.
Heptares, in collaboration with the University of Manchester and Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, will then carry out the preclinical development of candidates with the goal of providing novel safe, effective and orally available molecules for clinical studies for CHI with anticipated additional potential in other areas associated with intractable hypoglycaemia; including neonatal hypoglycaemia, hypoglycaemia occurring as a consequence of gastric bypass surgery and insulinoma-associated hypoglycaemia.
Harris' thesis showed that dextrose gel is a safe and effective treatment that can be recommended for first-line treatment of hypoglycaemia in late preterm and term babies.
What they found was that severe co-morbid illness alone may not explain the association between hypoglycaemia and cardiovascular disease.
The evidence that poor patient outcomes are associated with inpatient hypoglycaemia and that clinical staff fail to respond to or treat episodes effectively has prompted many institutions to develop guidelines for diabetes management and protocols specific to the treatment of hypoglycaemia (American College of Endocrinolgy & American Diabetes Association, 2006).
But Norris's lawyers have collected information from doctors at Rotherham General Hospital, and at the Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire postgraduate medical school, which suggests hypoglycaemia is far more common in old people in hospital than was suggested at Norris's trial.
An analysis in November showed that people under 65 on a drug for type 2 diabetes who had been treated for hypoglycaemia in the past were 40% more likely to have an accident.
campaign research highlights the difficulty that healthcare professionals face in discussing the importance of hypoglycaemia with people with type 2 diabetes.
Hypoglycaemia can be caused by a disruption in the balance between the hormone insulin and sugar.
More rarely, hypoglycaemia may follow an epileptic seizure or after binge drinking.