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see diabetesdiabetes
or diabetes mellitus
, chronic disorder of glucose (sugar) metabolism caused by inadequate production or use of insulin, a hormone produced in specialized cells (beta cells in the islets of Langerhans) in the pancreas that allows the body to use and store
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a decrease in the sugar content of the blood to below 80-70 mg percent.

Hypoglycemia is found in healthy persons during heightened muscular activity as a result of the considerable expenditure of glucose as an energy source when the body’s energy loss is not replenished with readily assimilable carbohydrates. Hypoglycemia sometimes arises after heavy intake of carbohydrates as a result of the reflex secretion by the pancreas of an excessive amount of insulin. The condition is observed in certain diseases of the insular apparatus of the pancreas, the hypothalamic region of the brain, the other endocrine glands, or the liver (disruption of the liver’s function as the principal glycogen depot), as well as in insulin overdose (hypoglycemic shock). In hypoglycemic shock, after a short period of central nervous system excitation, a condition develops that is accompanied by weakness, drowsiness, hunger, and psychic disturbances. Trembling, loss of consciousness, and convulsions may set in when sugar content is lowered to 40 percent or less. The condition is eliminated by administering glucose. Hypoglycemic or insulin shock may be induced artificially for the treatment of certain diseases.


Genes, S. G. Gipoglikemiia: Gipoglikemiche skii simptomokompleks. Moscow, 1970. (Bibliography, pp. 224-35.)


Condition caused by low levels of sugar in the blood.
References in periodicals archive ?
Long-Acting Analogue Offers Improved Blood Glucose Control, Weight Control and Low Risk of Hypoglycaemia, in a Once-Daily Treatment
A further study showed that treatment with Levemir(R) in combination with oral agents is associated with less within-subject variation in pre-breakfast and pre-dinner plasma glucose, less risk of hypoglycaemia and less weight gain compared with NPH insulin in people with type 2 diabetes.
Persons on intensive insulin therapy, or on oral drugs which may cause hypoglycaemia, need to rely on other means of managing hypoglycaemia.
In addition, patients in the Tresiba treated group experienced a 53% relative reduction in the rate of nocturnal severe hypoglycaemia.
Also, post-dosing hypoglycaemia events were rare, with only two events (within six hours) with dasiglucagon, compared to nine events with GlucaGen.
Diagnosis of hypoglycaemia was made on blood glucose below the normal and/or symptoms consistent with hypoglycaemia and correction by administration of food or glucose.
But the charity said that the DVLA does not differentiate between daytime and nighttime episodes of hypoglycaemia, meaning that some people with diabetes are losing their driving licence unnecessarily.
But the charity said that the DVLA does not currently differentiate between daytime and night-time episodes of hypoglycaemia, meaning that some people with diabetes are losing their driving licence unnecessarily.
Chen et al (2000) describe three cases where pet dogs were able to detect episodes of hypoglycaemia before the owner was aware and, in some cases, they were even able to detect hypoglycaemia overnight and wake their owner so they could take corrective action.
Hypoglycaemia is one of the most common and serious side effects of insulin therapy,reported Health news.
A study involving scientists from the University of Leicester has established a link between hypoglycaemia and increased risk of cardiovascular events and mortality in patients with diabetes.