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see diabetesdiabetes
or diabetes mellitus
, chronic disorder of glucose (sugar) metabolism caused by inadequate production or use of insulin, a hormone produced in specialized cells (beta cells in the islets of Langerhans) in the pancreas that allows the body to use and store
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a decrease in the sugar content of the blood to below 80-70 mg percent.

Hypoglycemia is found in healthy persons during heightened muscular activity as a result of the considerable expenditure of glucose as an energy source when the body’s energy loss is not replenished with readily assimilable carbohydrates. Hypoglycemia sometimes arises after heavy intake of carbohydrates as a result of the reflex secretion by the pancreas of an excessive amount of insulin. The condition is observed in certain diseases of the insular apparatus of the pancreas, the hypothalamic region of the brain, the other endocrine glands, or the liver (disruption of the liver’s function as the principal glycogen depot), as well as in insulin overdose (hypoglycemic shock). In hypoglycemic shock, after a short period of central nervous system excitation, a condition develops that is accompanied by weakness, drowsiness, hunger, and psychic disturbances. Trembling, loss of consciousness, and convulsions may set in when sugar content is lowered to 40 percent or less. The condition is eliminated by administering glucose. Hypoglycemic or insulin shock may be induced artificially for the treatment of certain diseases.


Genes, S. G. Gipoglikemiia: Gipoglikemiche skii simptomokompleks. Moscow, 1970. (Bibliography, pp. 224-35.)


Condition caused by low levels of sugar in the blood.
References in periodicals archive ?
46) There were no episodes of hypoglycemia requiring external assistance.
Hypoglycemia is a concern for most patients with DM that should be discussed at the time of diagnosis and routinely thereafter.
Strategies to manage hypoglycemia can be categorized into 3 groups: (1) prevention, or at the very least, risk reduction; (2) treatment of a hypoglycemic episode; and (3) modification of the DM treatment plan following a hypoglycemic episode.
The signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia should be reviewed and the patient advised that not all symptoms may occur during an episode.
Another important step in the prevention of hypoglycemia is cautioning the patient against taking any prescription, nonprescription, or herbal medication without first checking with a member of the DM care team.
In addition, fear or anxiety relating to hypoglycemia should be investigated and addressed as appropriate.
This is also an opportune time to review the cues for hypoglycemia with the patient.
Many avenues to educating patients about hypoglycemia awareness have been investigated.
Hypoglycemia is a common occurrence in patients with DM that may be caused by several factors.
A critical review of the literature on fear of hypoglycemia in diabetes: implications for diabetes management and patient education.
Effects of hypoglycemia on health-related quality of life, treatment satisfaction and healthcare resource utilization in patients with type 2 diabetes mefiitus.