the tadpole shrimp genus Triops) or the hyporheic zone
, or as transients on birds and other wildlife (e.
Gravel extraction, and poor management catchment have altered the extent and ecological integrity of the hyporheic zone
in the area which caused the reduction of the dependent biodiversity, and this was largely attributed to sedimentation and pollution.
The hyporheic zone
(HZ) is the interstitial active ecotone between the surface stream and ground water, where exchanges of water, biota, nutrients and organic matter occur (Orghidan, 1959; Schwoerbel, 1967; Boulton et al.
Paramount to brook trout viability is maintenance of stream temperature by influx of groundwater, in part through the hyporheic zone
(the mixing zone between groundwater and surface water just beneath the stream bottom) (Constantz and Zellweger 1995).
The hyporheic zone
could serve as a flow refugium for benthic invertebrates during times of flooding in the Kokosing River (Williams & Hynes 1974).
Fox GA, Dumford DS (2003) Unsaturated hyporheic zone
flow in stream/aquifer conjunctive systems.
For instance, a sampling of topics associated with streams includes the following; nutrient cycling and biogeochemical processes, transient and hyporheic zone
storage, stream/floodplain interactions, stream restoration and streambank stabilization, fluvial processes, streambank erosion and failure, aquatic habitat studies, and maintaining environmental flows.
Some riffle species can use the hyporheic zone
as refugia during riffle drying (Stegman and Minckley, 1959; Berra and Allen, 1989; Gagen et al.
Benthic sediments and the hyporheic zone
are known to be active sites of N transformations, including nitrification, denitrification, and ammonification (Jones et al.
Stream reaches within unconfined valley segments have an additional alternating pattern of downwelling and upwelling vertical exchange of water and materials between the hyporheic zone
and surface stream.
Potential food resources were determined by sampling the water column, rock surfaces, and upper hyporheic zone
, defined as the upper 10.
One such region is the world deep within river beds and floodplains, called the hyporheic zone