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Related to Hypospadias: Hypospadias and Epispadias


Congenital anomaly in which the urethra opens on the ventral surface of the penis or in the perineum.
Congenital anomaly in which the urethra opens into the vagina.



a congenital underdevelopment of the urethra consisting in the absence of its lower wall, so that the urethra does not open, as usual, in the glans penis, but instead on the underside of the penis, the scrotum, or the perineum.

Hypospadias is the most commonly found anomaly in the development of the organs of the male urogenital system. It is manifested by impairment of urination and, in adults, of sexual functions. In strongly pronounced hypospadias sexual activity is made difficult and sometimes impossible because of deformation of the penis. In extreme cases of scrotal and perineal hypospadias mistakes in determining sex are common. No treatment is required in minor cases of hypospadias; in all other cases, surgery is necessary.

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Population based nationwide study of hypospadias in Sweden, 1973 to 2009: Incidence and risk factors.
Statistically speaking, having a hypospadias means you're more likely to have these other things, too.
An understanding of the vascular anatomy of hypospadias, avoiding entry into the dorsal pedicle or the spongiosum ventrally will make for a haemostatic procedure with minimal blood loss.
Conclusions: Single penile incision for both hypospadias repair and correction of inguinal pathology is a feasible technique and comparable to the conventional approach, with similar surgical outcomes and shorter overall operative time.
It can be opted for patients of hypospadias with chordee as a single staged procedure when combined with urethroplasty.
GWAS for developmental defects of the male reproductive system have also identified candidate genes for hormonal (AR, steroidogenesis, ESR1, and ESR2) and nonhormonal (FGF8, FGFR2, BMP4, and BMP7) pathways underlying hypospadias (Carmichael et al.
Keywords: Severe hypospadias, Dartos fascial flap, Urethrocutanous fistula.
The cause of hypospadias is not known, it is presumed that affected foetus may secret inadequate quantities of testosterone or that there may be inadequate conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone in target tissues of urogenital sinus and external genitalia.
This can possibly lead to four conditions: cryptorchidism, hypospadias, impaired spermatogenesis, and testicular cancer [10].
Hypospadias is a rare congenital anomaly of the urethra, in which the urethra opens ventral and caudal to its normal anatomic location [1-4].
They are the ones confronting rising cases of hypospadias, a birth defect in which boys are born with a urethra opening on the side of the penis rather than at the tip.