Other clues to hypospermatogenesis include an increased number of small-caliber tubules, and, due to the associated disruptions in the architecture of germ cell maturation, earlier stages of germ cell development may be shed into the lumen.
A wide number of causes induce the nonspecific change of irregular hypospermatogenesis, including diabetes mellitus and the presence of a varicocele.
As previously noted, these finding should be categorized as hypospermatogenesis with a percentage estimate given for each component.
A decline in testicular function occurs normally with the aging process, matched by involutional changes in the testicular parenchyma, including hypospermatogenesis, peritubular fibrosis, and hyalinization of tubules commonly resulting in a pattern resembling that of mixed primary testicular pathology.
A prominence of Sertoli cells, with a relative overall decrease in germ cell quantity, is often seen with hypospermatogenesis as well and is the primary diagnostic feature when the disorder is uniform.
The term Sertoli-cell--only syndrome should be reserved for those cases in which all the tubules in the biopsy show absence of germ cells; if some tubules contain only Sertoli cells but other tubules contain advanced spermatids, the overall diagnosis is hypospermatogenesis with a mixed pattern.
Multiple histologic patterns were noted in the seminiferous tubules that contained inflammatory infiltrates or in the tubules adjacent to the interstitial inflammatory infiltrates: hypospermatogenesis (1 testis) (Figure 4); spermatogonial maturation arrest (2 testes) (Figure 1); tubules with intratubular germ cell neoplasia (1 testis) (Figure 5); Sertoli cell-only tubules (16 testes) (Figures 2 and 6); hyalinized tubules (10 testes, 9 of which also showed inflammatory infiltrates in other tubule types [Sertoli cell-only tubules in 7 testes, tubules with intratubular germ cell neoplasia in 1 testis, and tubules with hypospermatogenesis in 1 testis]) (Table 2).
22 23 I, R 80% Hyalinized with Dysgenetic spermatocele + 20% + mature hypospermatogenesis Tubular Ectasia, % Case ([dagger]) Rete Testis Epididymis 1 60 Cystic hypoplasia Hypoplastic 2 30 Cystic hypoplasia Hypoplastic 3 22 Normal Dilated 4 80 Cystic hypoplasia Hypoplastic 5 50 Cystic hypoplasia Hypoplastic 6 50 Cystic hypoplasia Hypoplastic 7 .
Air-dried slides were stained with the May-Grunwald-Giemsa stain (BDH, Merck Limited, Mumbai, India) and reported as normal spermatogenesis, hypospermatogenesis, maturation arrest or only Sertoli cells seen (19).
In a study (27), the patients having AZFc deletions showed severe phenotype of SCO I and maturation arrest, whereas, those having only AZFb deletions had less severe phenotype of maturation arrest and hypospermatogenesis in contrast to earlier studies (7) and the patients having AZFb+c deletions also showed severe phenotype like SCO I.