27, 2014 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ -- NASA researchers are part of an international team working to improve aviation safety by studying high altitude ice crystals
during a flight campaign now under way in Darwin, Australia.
Raymond Shaw and his colleagues, including graduate student Fan Yang, set about developing a model to describe how ice crystals
form, grow and fall, and they backed it up using data on arctic clouds, which are very well studied.
This problem causes loss of thrust in engines at high altitudes as ice crystals
form right behind the engine's front fan and impede air flow, which is necessary for thrust.
The growth of ice crystals
when products are stored in cold environments causes quality concerns for frozen products such as ice cream.
CAS freezing works on the simple principle that water molecules cannot cluster and form cell-wall-damaging ice crystals
if they are in motion during the freezing process.
Sharp ice crystals
in the seed embryo mean instant death for most seeds--but not for those of winterfat, a low-growing shrub that thrives from the Yukon to Mexico.
UNDER CONSTRUCTION--AS a real ice crystal
grows (left to right in top row), competing factors promote branching or build smooth edges.
This is because each ice crystal
forms as it falls through layers of air.
which has published QFFI since its beginning more than 46 years ago, presented the winners with plaques and oversaw the pinning of Golden Ice Crystal
crests on the lapels of Prakken and Kruk.
The freezing rate, and subsequently, ice crystal
size determine the quality of frozen food.
It works by minimising ice crystal
formation and inhibiting water loss.
As a result there are "many, many" tiny ice crystals
within a plant which prevents the growth of any one ice crystal
to damaging size.