idiom


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idiom

Arts the characteristic artistic style of an individual, school, period, etc.

Idiom

 

a combination of linguistic units whose meaning does not coincide with the meaning of its component elements. This lack of correspondence may be a consequence of the change in meaning of the elements as part of the whole.

A distinction is made between intralinguistic and interlinguis-tic idioms; the latter are characterized by the impossibility of “literal” translation. The lexical idiom is a nonfree combination of words (a variety of phraseological unit) that is characterized by integrity of the meaning, which cannot be inferred from the lexical components; it has the functional features of a word as a nominative unit of language and is rendered as an integral unit of language—for example, sobaku s”est\ “to know inside out” (literally “to eat a dog”); slomia golovu, “at breakneck speed” (literally “breaking [one’s] head”); akhillesova piata, “Achilles’ heel”; and pod mukhoi, “tipsy” (literally “under the fly”). The.concept of “lexical idiom” reflects the outcome of the widespread, although irregular, process of the formation of integral character structures as the result of the fusion of the signifieds of two or more word signs with preservation of the formal separability of their signifiers.

REFERENCES

Vinogradov, V. V. “Ob osnovnykh tipakh frazeologicheskikh edinits v russkom iazyke.” In A. A. Shakhmatov, 1864–1920: Sbornik statei i materialov. Moscow-Leningrad, 1947.
Bar-Hillel, Y. “Idiomy.” In Mashinnyi perevod. Moscow, 1957. (Translated from English.)
Mel’chuk, I. A. “O terminakh ‘ustoichivost’’ i ‘idiomatichnost’.’” Voprosy iazykoznaniia, 1960, no. 4.
Moskal’skaia, O. I. “Grammaticheskie idiomatizmy i sintagmika.” Ino-strannye iazyki v vysshei shkole, 1962, fasc. 1.
Hockett, C. “Idiom Formation.” In the collection For R. Jakobson: Essays on the Occasion of His Sixtieth Birthday. The Hague, 1956.

V. N. TELIIA

References in classic literature ?
Now my humble fear is that this double training, in language as well as in thought, imposes somewhat too heavy a burden upon the young, especially when, at the age of three years old, they are taken from the maternal care and taught to unlearn the old language -- except for the purpose of repeating it in the presence of their Mothers and Nurses -- and to learn the vocabulary and idiom of science.
It is precisely because such phrases are not part of the current idiom that they give distinction to the style.
To the present day, however, the three dialects, and subdivisions of them, are easily distinguishable in colloquial use; the common idiom of such regions as Yorkshire and Cornwall is decidedly different from that of London or indeed any other part of the country.
On another occasion he was rather scandalised at finding his sister with a book of French plays; but as the governess remarked that it was for the purpose of acquiring the French idiom in conversation, he was fain to be content.
I have never been in America, and the American public is the last on earth that I desire to insult; but idiom and intonation alike would have imposed upon my inexperience.
He had repaired it with large patches of French, with words anglicized by a process of his own, and with native idioms literally translated.
I assure you I am often surprised at my own fluency, and, when I get a little more practice in the genders and the idioms, I shall do very well in this respect.
The pronunciation, as it happens, is just what I am most at home in; if he had said my genders or my idioms there would have been some sense.
For a long time past he had been applying himself to the study of the Arab language and the various Mandingoe idioms, and, thanks to his talents as a polyglot, he had made rapid progress.
Bilibin was now at army headquarters in a diplomatic capacity, and though he wrote in French and used French jests and French idioms, he described the whole campaign with a fearless self-censure and self-derision genuinely Russian.
You might retort," she suggested, "that when an adult is with kindergarten children he must descend to kindergarten idioms in order to make himself intelligible.
If your conscience," says the man with the nose, "is indisposed toward foreign idioms ye might, to please yourself, smuggle the letter into the penultimate syllable.