Immunotherapy

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Related to immunotherapeutic: adoptive immunotherapy

Immunotherapy

The treatment of cancer by improving the ability of a tumor-bearing individual (the host) to reject the tumor immunologically. There are molecules on the surface of tumor cells, and perhaps in their interior, that are recognized as different from normal structures by the immune system and thus generate an immune response. The two components of the immune response are cell-mediated and antibody-mediated immunity, which must work in concert to overcome tumor cells. One type of thymus-derived lymphocyte (also called a cytotoxic T cell) can destroy tumor cells directly, while another recruits other white blood cells, the macrophages, that do the killing. Natural killer cells and perhaps other white blood cells may also participate. However, elements that normally regulate immunity, such as suppressor T cells, are stimulated excessively by the tumor, which leads to an immune response that is deficient and unable to reject the growing tumor. Thus the strategy of immunotherapy is to stimulate within or transfer to the tumor-bearing individual the appropriate antitumor elements while avoiding further stimulation of suppressor elements. See Cellular immunology, Immunologic cytotoxicity, Immunosuppression

There are four broad categories of immunotherapy: active, adoptive, restorative, and passive. Active immunotherapy attempts to stimulate the host's intrinsic immune response to the tumor, either nonspecifically or specifically. Nonspecific active immunotherapy utilizes materials that have no apparent antigenic relationship to the tumor, but have modulatory effects on the immune system, stimulating macrophages, lymphocytes, and natural killer cells. Specific active immunotherapy attempts to stimulate specific antitumor responses with tumor-associated antigens as the immunizing materials. Adoptive immunotherapy involves the transfer of immunologically competent white blood cells or their precursors into the host. Bone marrow transplantation, while performed principally for the replacement of hematopoietic stem cells, can also be viewed as adoptive immunotherapy. Restorative immunotherapy comprises the direct and indirect restoration of deficient immunological function through any means other than the direct transfer of cells. Passive immunotherapy means the transfer of antibodies to tumor-bearing recipients. This approach has been made feasible by the development of hybridoma technology, which now permits the production of large quantities of monoclonal antibodies specific for an antigenic determinant on tumor cells. See Genetic engineering, Immunology, Monoclonal antibodies

Immunotherapy

 

a branch of practical immunology concerned with the treatment of infectious diseases through the use of immunological preparations, such as vaccines, immune sera, and gamma globulins.

Sera and gamma globulins are used for acute types of disease, such as diphtheria, tetanus, botulism, and cerebrospinal meningitis. Vaccines are injected for protracted, sluggish, and chronic forms of infection, such as dysentery, brucellosis, and tularemia. Immunotherapy is combined with antibiotics and chemotherapy.

In veterinary medicine, infectious diseases are treated by injecting affected animals with therapeutic sera and bacteriophages. When injected with therapeutic serum or the gamma globulin obtained from it the animal receives, in ready form, protective substances (antibodies) against the causative agent of the disease or its toxin.

immunotherapy

[¦im·yə·nō′ther·ə·pē]
(medicine)
Therapy utilizing immunosuppressives.
References in periodicals archive ?
The Independent Data Monitoring Committee (IDMC) indicated that its review of the current safety information revealed no specific safety concern and the data is in line with the known safety information for the MAGE-A3 cancer immunotherapeutic.
Use of an immunotherapeutic vaccine to treat a lifethreatening human arteritic infection caused by Pythium insidiosum.
The Independent Data Monitoring Committee (IDMC) indicated that its review of the current safety information raised no specific concern for the continuation of the trial and is in line with the known safety information for the MAGE-A3 cancer immunotherapeutic.
We are delighted to enter into this license agreement with Transgene, one of the leading companies developing this new class of immunotherapeutic products" said Dr.
Dynavax's pipeline includes: TOLAMBA, a ragweed allergy immunotherapeutic that has completed a Phase 2/3 clinical trial and is currently in a supportive clinical trial in ragweed-allergic children; HEPLISAV, a hepatitis B vaccine that is currently in a pivotal Phase 3 clinical trial; a cancer therapy currently in a Phase 2 clinical trial; and an asthma immunotherapeutic that has shown preliminary safety and pharmacologic activity in a Phase 2a clinical trial.
RP01 is an immunotherapeutic that stimulates the immune system to produce antibodies against IgE (Immunoglobulin E), the key mediator of allergic reactions.
Dynavax's pipeline includes: a ragweed allergy immunotherapeutic, currently in a large-scale Phase 2/3 clinical trial, and in a supportive clinical trial in ragweed allergic children; a hepatitis B vaccine that is currently in a pivotal Phase 3 clinical trial; a cancer therapy currently in a Phase 2 clinical trial; and an asthma immunotherapeutic that has shown preliminary safety and pharmacology in a Phase 2a clinical trial.
or about leading research and development for vaccines and immunotherapeutic technologies.
Dynavax's pipeline includes: a ragweed allergy immunotherapeutic, currently in a large-scale Phase 2/3 clinical trial, and in a supportive clinical trial in ragweed allergic children; a hepatitis B vaccine that is currently in a Phase 2/3 clinical trial; a cancer therapy currently in a Phase 2 clinical trial; and an asthma immunotherapeutic that has shown preliminary safety and pharmacology in a Phase 2a clinical trial.
As an active immunotherapeutic, BiovaxID may also provide ongoing immunosurveillance for recurrent tumors.
ISS are being developed in three initial indications: ragweed allergy immunotherapeutic, currently in a Phase 2/3 clinical trial; a Hepatitis B vaccine, currently in a Phase 2/3 clinical trial; and an asthma immunotherapeutic that has completed a Phase 2 exploratory trial.