Immunotherapy

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Related to immunotherapies: adoptive immunotherapy, Immunotherapeutics

Immunotherapy

The treatment of cancer by improving the ability of a tumor-bearing individual (the host) to reject the tumor immunologically. There are molecules on the surface of tumor cells, and perhaps in their interior, that are recognized as different from normal structures by the immune system and thus generate an immune response. The two components of the immune response are cell-mediated and antibody-mediated immunity, which must work in concert to overcome tumor cells. One type of thymus-derived lymphocyte (also called a cytotoxic T cell) can destroy tumor cells directly, while another recruits other white blood cells, the macrophages, that do the killing. Natural killer cells and perhaps other white blood cells may also participate. However, elements that normally regulate immunity, such as suppressor T cells, are stimulated excessively by the tumor, which leads to an immune response that is deficient and unable to reject the growing tumor. Thus the strategy of immunotherapy is to stimulate within or transfer to the tumor-bearing individual the appropriate antitumor elements while avoiding further stimulation of suppressor elements. See Cellular immunology, Immunologic cytotoxicity, Immunosuppression

There are four broad categories of immunotherapy: active, adoptive, restorative, and passive. Active immunotherapy attempts to stimulate the host's intrinsic immune response to the tumor, either nonspecifically or specifically. Nonspecific active immunotherapy utilizes materials that have no apparent antigenic relationship to the tumor, but have modulatory effects on the immune system, stimulating macrophages, lymphocytes, and natural killer cells. Specific active immunotherapy attempts to stimulate specific antitumor responses with tumor-associated antigens as the immunizing materials. Adoptive immunotherapy involves the transfer of immunologically competent white blood cells or their precursors into the host. Bone marrow transplantation, while performed principally for the replacement of hematopoietic stem cells, can also be viewed as adoptive immunotherapy. Restorative immunotherapy comprises the direct and indirect restoration of deficient immunological function through any means other than the direct transfer of cells. Passive immunotherapy means the transfer of antibodies to tumor-bearing recipients. This approach has been made feasible by the development of hybridoma technology, which now permits the production of large quantities of monoclonal antibodies specific for an antigenic determinant on tumor cells. See Genetic engineering, Immunology, Monoclonal antibodies

Immunotherapy

 

a branch of practical immunology concerned with the treatment of infectious diseases through the use of immunological preparations, such as vaccines, immune sera, and gamma globulins.

Sera and gamma globulins are used for acute types of disease, such as diphtheria, tetanus, botulism, and cerebrospinal meningitis. Vaccines are injected for protracted, sluggish, and chronic forms of infection, such as dysentery, brucellosis, and tularemia. Immunotherapy is combined with antibiotics and chemotherapy.

In veterinary medicine, infectious diseases are treated by injecting affected animals with therapeutic sera and bacteriophages. When injected with therapeutic serum or the gamma globulin obtained from it the animal receives, in ready form, protective substances (antibodies) against the causative agent of the disease or its toxin.

immunotherapy

[¦im·yə·nō′ther·ə·pē]
(medicine)
Therapy utilizing immunosuppressives.
References in periodicals archive ?
Immune Design is a clinical-state, public biotechnology company developing in vivo immunotherapies engineered to activate the immune system's natural ability to generate and/or expand antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells, while also enhancing other immune effectors, to fight cancer and other chronic diseases.
6 Analysis of future growth potentials of contract manufacturing market of cancer immunotherapies 3.
Moreover, in addition to the advantages derived from the multiantigen composition, GVAX([R]) cancer immunotherapies also have the advantage of continuously releasing GM-CSF, a protein that activates dendritic and other immune cells at the injection site and serves as a potent product-secreted adjuvant during the immunization process.
There are several types of cancer immunotherapy, but checkpoint inhibitors are showing the most promise There is a focus on melanoma and lung cancer for immunotherapy R&D Clinical trial design will have to be adapted in order for cancer immunotherapies to fully demonstrate their potential in this setting Combinations of immunotherapies are the most promising and appealing approach for oncologists Cancer immunotherapies: hype or reality?
Six decades of research are now bearing fruit, as immunotherapies for multiple cancers are beginning to provide real benefit to patients," O'Donnell-Tormey said.
Non-personalized HIV immunotherapies are unable to raise cytotoxic T lymphocytes against HIV antigens, fail to induce T cell memory, and, most importantly, do not provide antiviral protection against the patient's own particular virus," said Jean-Pierre Routy, M.
With significant support from the biotech and pharmaceutical industry as well as leading academic research hospitals, Cancer Immunotherapy Month is helping accelerate the development of immunotherapies by raising funds to support cancer immunotherapy research, increasing awareness and educating the public, and enlisting the help of scientists and clinicians around the world.
OTC BB: GCAN), a developer of immunotherapies for the treatment of cancer, today announced that Patrick Schnegelsberg, Chief Executive Officer, is scheduled to present VitiGam, GammaCan's lead product under development for the treatment of stage III and IV melanoma, to the investor, biotechnology and pharma communities at the BioPartnering North America Conference.
Advancing into clinical trials in this second cancer indication is a significant achievement for Argos and demonstrates the applicability of our autologous dendritic cell-based immunotherapies to multiple indications.
That the majority of antibody responses are unique to individual patients is further evidence that the non patient-specific format of GVAX immunotherapies is capable of inducing unique, patient-specific immune responses.
Introgen is developing molecular therapeutics, immunotherapies, vaccines and nano-particle therapies to treat a wide range of cancers using tumor suppressors and cytokines.
Classen Immunotherapies has expertise in the area of discovering adverse event information that drug manufacturers are required to disclose.