We have shown that at least one dialect of Finnish (from Tampere) provides a counterexample to the claim that voiced stop inventories are organized by the implicational
hierarchy b [contains] d [contains] g by having [d] but no [b].
The constraints which govern term accessibility to different grammatical processes seem to be related to cognitive aspects associated with the degree of closeness of the constituents with respect to the deictic centre of the speaker and which imply that such properties appear in the first positions in the implicational
hierarchies: "there are connections between grammatical and cognitive accessibility in the sense that, to a certain extent, those constituents which are most accessible to grammatical processes are at the same time most accessible in a cognitive sense" (Dik 1997a: 41).
Semantic maps can also be used to make statements about implicational
The splits are captured by a pair of implicational
generalizations: If an object is marked with accusative case in a particular language, then any NP higher in the animacy scale will also be marked accusative.
k] be the set of implicational
formulae t such that all the variables used in t belongs to the set [V.
perspective thus helps to distinguish three types of properties.
Differences between languages are explicitly recognized in the postulation of implicational
hierarchies of the form 'If a language has/does X then it will have/do Y': for instance, for adverbial satellites Hengeveld (1996, 1998) proposes a hierarchy 2nd order > 3rd order > 4th order, and then hypothesizes that if some language uses a dependent verb form in an adverbial clause designating an entity at some point in the hierarchy, it will also use a dependent form for any entity which is higher up the hierarchy (i.
Thus, there is a lesser degree of semantic/pragmatic integration between the matrix clause and a presuppositional finite complement clause than there is between the matrix clause and an implicational
The present paper suggests how a fairly traditional 'word and paradigm' (WP) perspective can bring out the prosodic and implicational
structure of conjugation classes in Estonian.
Table 1 maps the deviations from basic copular locative (CL) sentences with respect to the various semantic groups in Wilkin's implicational
hierarchy (Ameka and Levinson this issue).
11) For four of the strata, there is an implicational
relationship in the inventories of structures allowed in the strata they define: unassimilated foreign words are the most permissive in their structural possibilities, while the other three strata--assimilated foreign roots, Sino-Japanese roots, and Yamato roots--each have an increasingly more restricted subset of permissible structures:
Note first that this implicational
scale closely parallels the one which emerged from Loporcaro's (1998) study of Romance PtP agreement.