duty

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duty,

in taxation: see tarifftariff,
tax on imported and, more rarely, exported goods. It is also called a customs duty. Tariffs may be distinguished from other taxes in that their predominant purpose is not financial but economic—not to increase a nation's revenue but to protect domestic industries
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; excise taxesexcise taxes,
governmental levies on specific goods produced and consumed inside a country. They differ from tariffs, which usually apply only to foreign-made goods, and from sales taxes, which typically apply to all commodities other than those specifically exempted.
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.

Duty

 

a category of ethics that expresses the moral task of a particular individual, group of individuals, class, or people under specific social conditions and situations, a task that for them becomes an internally acceptable obligation. In this respect duty differs from the more abstract concept of what is due or fitting, which encompasses all the demands made on people in the form of norms.

In the history of mankind’s moral consciousness, duty has been interpreted in different ways, according to social or class conceptions of man’s obligations at a particular period in history; it has always been connected with specific problems of a time and of a given society. The concept of duty has included the fulfillment of the “simplest rules of the community of man,” which had been developed in the course of history. The problem of the nature of duty has always given rise to disagreement among the various schools and trends of philosophical ethics. The foundations of duty have been connected with the interpretation of moral necessity—the fulfillment of divine commands, cosmic or supernatural laws, official or unofficial social precepts, or self-realization of the internal potential of the personality.

In Marxist ethics, moral duty is regarded as the concretization of general requirements of morality, which have a historical origin and which pertain to existing circumstances, conditions, and a person’s abilities and potentials. These requirements determine the conditions and degree of his responsibility and constitute his motives and conscience. Thus, duty expresses the moral specifics of the socio-ideological position of personality with respect to the existing social situation and to the conflict and disposition of class forces, as well as the moral specifics of internal convictions and the means of their realization.

REFERENCES

Marx, K., and F. Engels. “Nemetskaia ideologiia.” Soch., 2nd ed., vol. 3, pp. 235-36.
Lenin, V. I. “Gosudarstvo i revoliutsiia.” Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 33, chap. 5.
Lenin, V. I. “Zadachi soiuzov molodezhi.” Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 41.
Arkhangel’skii, L. M. Kategorii marksistskoi etiki. Moscow, 1963.

O. G. DROBNITSKII

What does it mean when you dream about duty?

To feel bound by duty in a dream may be a reflection of the dreamer’s past experiences in the military. If, however, the dreamer is overly concerned with duty in their dreams, perhaps compulsive behavior or control issues are posing problems.

duty

1. a government tax, esp on imports
2. Brit
a. the quantity or intensity of work for which a machine is designed
b. a measure of the efficiency of a machine
References in periodicals archive ?
Imposition of import duty on the scrap increases the raw material cost adversely affecting the steel manufacturers' competitiveness.
The increase in import duty on soybean will come as a major support to the farmers who can now look forward to attractive remuneration for their produce.
In December 2015, the Minister of Finance received a recommendation from the Minister of Trade and Industry for an increase in the rate of import duty on wheat and wheaten flour from R911.
The import duty would increase prices of the cell phones and not affect the business of cell phone but also mobile phone service providers companies business too Instead of imposing import duty and increasing prices of the mobile phones the government should work to set up and strengthen mobile phone industry in the country with incentives for local industrial set ups.
In an interview with the Press Trust of India, Commerce and Industry minister of state, Nirmala Sitharaman, said the country's gold import duty should be eased.
We have reached a consensus to raise the import duty to 40 per cent," food and consumer affairs minister Ram Vilas Paswan said after meeting senior government officials here.
New Delhi: The Indian government is likely to increase import duty on jewellery from 10 per cent to 15 per cent with a view to check inward shipment of gold besides protecting domestic manufacturers.
Sandeep Singh, deputy MD and COO (marketing and commercial), said, 'The Lexus project has been delayed due to heavy import duty and the sluggish market.
5 lakh vehicles under a reduced import duty of 10% over a period of 5 years from 2017 to 2021.
Manufacturers of confectionery products announce higher prices unless the Government extends the measure of a reduced import duty rate on sugar.
The Customs Union of Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan increased the import duty for raw sugar from $50 to $85 per a ton, the Association of Sugar Producers of Customs Union said.
Increase in exports of more competitive products will offset the potential losses in state revenue from the import duty cut and exemption, he said.