duty

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duty,

in taxation: see tarifftariff,
tax on imported and, more rarely, exported goods. It is also called a customs duty. Tariffs may be distinguished from other taxes in that their predominant purpose is not financial but economic—not to increase a nation's revenue but to protect domestic industries
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; excise taxesexcise taxes,
governmental levies on specific goods produced and consumed inside a country. They differ from tariffs, which usually apply only to foreign-made goods, and from sales taxes, which typically apply to all commodities other than those specifically exempted.
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.

Duty

 

a category of ethics that expresses the moral task of a particular individual, group of individuals, class, or people under specific social conditions and situations, a task that for them becomes an internally acceptable obligation. In this respect duty differs from the more abstract concept of what is due or fitting, which encompasses all the demands made on people in the form of norms.

In the history of mankind’s moral consciousness, duty has been interpreted in different ways, according to social or class conceptions of man’s obligations at a particular period in history; it has always been connected with specific problems of a time and of a given society. The concept of duty has included the fulfillment of the “simplest rules of the community of man,” which had been developed in the course of history. The problem of the nature of duty has always given rise to disagreement among the various schools and trends of philosophical ethics. The foundations of duty have been connected with the interpretation of moral necessity—the fulfillment of divine commands, cosmic or supernatural laws, official or unofficial social precepts, or self-realization of the internal potential of the personality.

In Marxist ethics, moral duty is regarded as the concretization of general requirements of morality, which have a historical origin and which pertain to existing circumstances, conditions, and a person’s abilities and potentials. These requirements determine the conditions and degree of his responsibility and constitute his motives and conscience. Thus, duty expresses the moral specifics of the socio-ideological position of personality with respect to the existing social situation and to the conflict and disposition of class forces, as well as the moral specifics of internal convictions and the means of their realization.

REFERENCES

Marx, K., and F. Engels. “Nemetskaia ideologiia.” Soch., 2nd ed., vol. 3, pp. 235-36.
Lenin, V. I. “Gosudarstvo i revoliutsiia.” Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 33, chap. 5.
Lenin, V. I. “Zadachi soiuzov molodezhi.” Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 41.
Arkhangel’skii, L. M. Kategorii marksistskoi etiki. Moscow, 1963.

O. G. DROBNITSKII

What does it mean when you dream about duty?

To feel bound by duty in a dream may be a reflection of the dreamer’s past experiences in the military. If, however, the dreamer is overly concerned with duty in their dreams, perhaps compulsive behavior or control issues are posing problems.

duty

1. a government tax, esp on imports
2. Brit
a. the quantity or intensity of work for which a machine is designed
b. a measure of the efficiency of a machine
References in periodicals archive ?
In a statement issued here on Thursday, Chairman PTEA Sohail Pasha and Vice Chairman Rizwan Riaz Saigal expressed concern over the increase in import duty on coal in budget 2015-16.
In an interview with the Press Trust of India, Commerce and Industry minister of state, Nirmala Sitharaman, said the country's gold import duty should be eased.
We have reached a consensus to raise the import duty to 40 per cent," food and consumer affairs minister Ram Vilas Paswan said after meeting senior government officials here.
While Indian government sources have revealed the government is looking to make such a cut this month, UAE gold and diamond jewellery retailers have said they would welcome any drop in import duty on gold prices.
Reinforcement fabricators in the UAE were exempt from import duty if they processed the steel arriving in Jebel Ali through cutting or bending, but now all importers are included under the January ruling.
According to the information of the first six months of introducing the measure of reduced import duty on sugar, production has gone up and the export of biscuits, cookies and waffles has increased by one-third.
Thapar also admitted "the high import duty is working as a weapon for us" in terms of generating demand from foreign labels.
The budget has failed to clear any of the measures taken in the direction of custom duty or import duty besides generation of revenues after increasing GST and import duty on several items, he maintained.
Summary: DUBAI: Saudi Arabia has lifted the import duty on steel rebar in order to ease a shortage in the kingdom as prices rise for rebar feedstock, a Trade and Industry Ministry spokesman said on Monday.
Summary: JEDDAH: Saudi Arabia has taken a major step by lifting the import duty on steel rebar to alleviate a shortage in the Kingdom as prices rise for rebar feedstock.
Summary: A rise in steel prices and a shortage in steel rebar supplies have prompted Saudi's government to lift the import duty on steel rebar, thus avoiding delays in completion of construction projects.
Tier One provides relief from import duty only requiring the contractor to pay Consumption Tax and the Customs Service Charge.