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a group of primarily hydroengineering measures carried out to supply arid and semiarid regions with water. Impounding is the first stage in the construction of water-supply and irrigation systems in areas with insufficient or no sources of water or with unsuitable water. The first to be impounded are local water resources, such as groundwater, rivers, lakes, and atmospheric precipitation. Water intake works (wells, cappings, underground irrigation canals, river water intakes), reservoirs for accumulating local runoff, and control reservoirs on rivers are constructed. If such sources are insufficient—if they are absent or unevenly distributed—distant water sources are located, and their waters are distributed by canal and pipeline to the region that needs water.

The type of impounding measures employed depends on the economic use of the land. To supply water to pastures, dug and Abyssinian wells are used, and water distribution points are established. In regions where dry farming predominates, water is supplied to the farms by a network of water conduits that combine the functions of impounding and supply. In regions where it is possible to develop selective irrigation, mainly in areas where vegetable and feed crops are raised, water-supply and irrigation systems are built. The water is delivered by canal.

In the USSR, extensive work in impounding is being carried out. More than 220 million hectares (ha) of pasture land was supplied with impounded water in 1974, including more than 110 million ha in the Kazakh SSR and more than 60 million ha in Middle Asia. The total area of pastures requiring water supply is about 300 million ha. Of this amount, 58 million ha were first supplied with water between 1956 and 1960, 44 million ha between 1961 and 1965, and 33 million ha between 1966 and 1970.

Conduits bring water to many valuable pastures, including mountain pastures. In 1972 the conduits extended for more than 4,300 km, with the major ones in the Caucasus and Middle Asia. The water conduits on the pastures of Dzheiranchel’ (Azerbaijan SSR) supply water to about 200,000 ha, providing water for 400,000 sheep and 20,000 head of cattle. Networks of water conduits are used in the Kazakh SSR, Siberia, the Caucasus, and the Crimea. For example, the Ishim network in the Kazakh SSR traverses 2.2 million ha of arid lands and provides water to 195 settlements. The length of its conduits is 1,750 km. Water-supply and irrigation systems have been built in the Northern Caucasus, the southern Ukrainian SSR, and the Caspian lowland. The most important systems are the Tersko-Kum (area supplied by impounding, 1.3 million ha; irrigated area, 53,000 ha), the Pravo-egorlyk (area supplied by impounding, 1.5 million ha; irrigated area, 32,000 ha), and the Kuban’-Kalaus (area supplied by impounding, 300,000 ha; irrigated area, 198,000 ha). The ninth five-year plan (1971–75) provided for the construction of water-supply and irrigation systems near the Tersko-Kum, North Crimean, and Karakum canals. According to the plan, a total of 41 million ha of pasture land were to be supplied with water.

Impounding projects are being carried out in the United States, Australia, and other countries.


Sokolov, B. I. Obvodnenie pastbishch pustyn’. Tashkent, 1958.
Ovodov, V. S. Sel’skokhoziaistvennoe vodosnabzhenie i obvodnenie, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1960.
Askochenskii, A. N. Oroshenie i obvodnenie ν SSSR. Moscow, 1967.
Ratsional’noe ispol’zovanie obvodnitel’no-orositel’nykh sistem. Moscow, 1970.


References in periodicals archive ?
They also noted down the registration numbers of over 1,200 more vehicles and are now in the process of impounding them.
He sated this while reviewing the progress report of the special squad which arrested 6 offenders were for one-wheeling and car-racing besides impounding 2 cars and 65 motorcycles.
According to the Arabic paper work, issued to me at the time of impounding the car, it costs an extra 50 dirhams a day for every day beyond seven days that the car is left in the pound.
We're impounding cars of those drivers whose licenses have been suspended or revoked or have never had a license,'' Arnold said.
We will take immediate action, whether it is fining or impounding the vehicle," he said.
According to details, on directives of senior ETO Motor Registering Authority Sarfaraz Aalam Khan, a team of E&T comprising five squads started crackdown against token tax defaulters impounding 36 vehicles and challaned 83 vehicles.
Until we start impounding some vehicles, people won't know we're serious.
Excluding the expenses of towing the vehicle and impounding it, a Dh500 fine has been issued as a violation fee, said Al Sharji.
QUETTA, April 22, 2010 (Frontier Star): The Quetta customs' Authority, in joint efforts with FC have foiled a smuggling bid worth billions, impounding 12 trucks.
With prostitution rising on streets throughout the city, a Los Angeles official called on Tuesday for a new tactic - impounding cars from suspects arrested for solicitation.
Abu Dhabi Around 1,548 vehicles that have been impounded for more than a year at the Bani Yas vehicles impounding yard could be sold off in an open auction unless owners finalise their release, the Municipality of Abu Dhabi City announced in a statement sent yesterday.