inclined plane


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inclined plane,

simple machinemachine,
arrangement of moving and stationary mechanical parts used to perform some useful work or to provide transportation. From a historical perspective, many of the first machines were the result of human efforts to improve war-making capabilities; the term engineer
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, consisting of a sloping surface, whose purpose is to reduce the force that must be applied to raise a load. To raise a body vertically a force must be applied that is equal to the weight of the body, i.e., the product of its mass and the acceleration of gravity. The amount of work done (i.e., energy expended) in raising the body is equal to its weight times the distance through which it is raised. By means of an inclined plane a force smaller than the weight of the body can be exerted over a distance greater than the direct vertical distance, doing work equal to the product of the force and the distance through which it acts. If friction is ignored, the work done using the inclined plane will be exactly equal to the work done in lifting the body directly. In any real system some work is done to overcome friction between the plane and the load. The actual mechanical advantage of an inclined plane is the ratio of the load lifted to the force applied; ideally it is equal to the ratio of the length of the sloping plane to its vertical rise. An inclined plane whose sloping length is 5 m and whose vertical rise is 1 m has a mechanical advantage of 5; a 300-newton load can be moved up such a plane by a 60-newton force. The inclined plane has been modified in many ways. The screw and wedge are applications of the principle of the inclined plane but do not require that the load be moved vertically for their successful operation. The chisel, carpenter's plane, auger bit, and ax are some of the many tools based on this principle. Switchbacks on mountain roads are inclined planes that reduce the effort of an automobile engine but increase the distance a car must travel to ascend the mountain.

inclined plane

[′in‚klīnd ′plān]
(mechanics)
A plane surface at an angle to some force or reference line.
References in periodicals archive ?
By carefully studying a page of Galileo's notebooks, Drake concluded that Galileo probably actually had arrived at the law using the inclined plane method, but by marking out the time in a way that took advantage of his musical training.
In Figure 5, a straight line was drawn at the point of saturation of the photovoltaic panel, showing that if the photovoltaic system had been installed horizontally, the exposure time to the saturation irradiance level in winter would be approximately 3 hours shorter; in the inclined plane, the panel worked for approximately 7 hours under saturation conditions.
When the muscle relaxant property of ZEO was tested in the inclined plane and chimney tests, it showed prominent activity.
GENERATION 4--This generation saw the addition of a low profile anterior inclined plane on the central and lateral incisor brackets.
Gr Treatment Inclined plane test ou (Dose mg/Kg) ps BGD AGD I Normal 135 [+ or -] 0.
Examples of simple machines used in the tree house are an inclined plane entrance and a pulley bucket out the window.
Team Thorp set up its inclined plane to send its coal cart downhill in a controlled manner.
Two-dimensional flow along an inclined plane wall and the impact of Coanda effect on the flow character is described also in the paper of Allery et al.
The GQS is an inclined plane, aligned with the runway centerline, that spans from the DA down to the airport's runway threshold.
Often used together, the MoveMaster Chain Conveyor and Bucket Elevator utilize the "EnMasse" principle where bulk materials are induced to move like a liquid through a dust tight steel casing, which can be designed horizontally, on an inclined plane, vertically and around bends.
Raises of trunk in inclined plane, legs raise at rib stall (bar), flections-extensions of the trunk at a machine for abdomen.
The conclusive section of the book offers a map showing the main objects of seventeenth-century mechanics representing transformations between them in the sense of a reduction of one to the other such as Galileo's reduction of the inclined plane to the lever or the identification of profound similarities between different objects such as oscillations being characteristic of pendulums, strings, as well as of springs.