inclined plane


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inclined plane,

simple machinemachine,
arrangement of moving and stationary mechanical parts used to perform some useful work or to provide transportation. From a historical perspective, many of the first machines were the result of human efforts to improve war-making capabilities; the term engineer
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, consisting of a sloping surface, whose purpose is to reduce the force that must be applied to raise a load. To raise a body vertically a force must be applied that is equal to the weight of the body, i.e., the product of its mass and the acceleration of gravity. The amount of work done (i.e., energy expended) in raising the body is equal to its weight times the distance through which it is raised. By means of an inclined plane a force smaller than the weight of the body can be exerted over a distance greater than the direct vertical distance, doing work equal to the product of the force and the distance through which it acts. If friction is ignored, the work done using the inclined plane will be exactly equal to the work done in lifting the body directly. In any real system some work is done to overcome friction between the plane and the load. The actual mechanical advantage of an inclined plane is the ratio of the load lifted to the force applied; ideally it is equal to the ratio of the length of the sloping plane to its vertical rise. An inclined plane whose sloping length is 5 m and whose vertical rise is 1 m has a mechanical advantage of 5; a 300-newton load can be moved up such a plane by a 60-newton force. The inclined plane has been modified in many ways. The screw and wedge are applications of the principle of the inclined plane but do not require that the load be moved vertically for their successful operation. The chisel, carpenter's plane, auger bit, and ax are some of the many tools based on this principle. Switchbacks on mountain roads are inclined planes that reduce the effort of an automobile engine but increase the distance a car must travel to ascend the mountain.

inclined plane

[′in‚klīnd ′plān]
(mechanics)
A plane surface at an angle to some force or reference line.
References in periodicals archive ?
An inclined plane is a simple machine that consists of an upward or downward slanting surface that allows a load to be moved with less force.
There are two main families of simple machines: inclined planes (ramp, wedge and screw) and levers (lever, wheel and axle, and pulley).
Different sizes and shapes -- different angles of the two inclined planes that form it -- have different effects.
And for this reason, the inclined plane is appropriate for Frank's learning of physics.
And even when you get to a regular worksurface, like a hotel desk or table, the widget is still handy because a drop-down wedge turns the folded product into a five-position inclined plane, which is easier on your wrists, and again allows air to circulate all around the laptop.
The new track resistant products comply with ANSI/ICEA S-70-547 (Standard for Weather-Resistant Polyethylene Cover Conductors) and the special coverings meet both ASTM 2303 Inclined Plane and ASTM D3132 Dust-and-Fog standards.
Internally the form contains three tiers of accommodation anchored against the southerly wall, with the curve of the wall becoming a surface with which to engage, forming an inclined plane against which to lean while reading a book in the child's playroom, and providing shelves of varying depth in the kitchen.
A narrow gauge tramway was laid down on a long inclined plane, and rope pulled the wagons full of stone up the slope.
Once the car models are completed, students will test each car's speed on an inclined plane and examine who has the fastest car.
Contract Notice: Ballachulish Inclined Plane Stabilisation and ConservationHighland Council is seeking tenders for the conservation of the Tom Beag Inclined Plane near the village of Ballachulish.