inclosure


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inclosure

or

enclosure,

in British history, the process of inclosing (with fences, ditches, hedges, or other barriers) land formerly subject to common rights. Such land included fields cultivated by the open-field or strip system, wasteland, and the common pasture land. Inclosure accompanied and accelerated the breakdown of the manorial systemmanorial system
or seignorial system
, economic and social system of medieval Europe under which peasants' land tenure and production were regulated, and local justice and taxation were administered.
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. In England the practice, dating from the 12th cent., received legal sanction through statutes (1235, 1285) permitting landlords to inclose wastelands on condition they left sufficient land for their free tenants. Its great development, however, came with the rapid expansion of the Flemish wool trade after the 14th cent. The monetary advantages resulting from intensive cultivation of large, fenced fields and particularly from the conversion of land into fenced sheep pastures moved landlords to make agreements with tenants or to expel them, illegally or for the slightest default, in order to inclose large areas. Under the Tudors, the hardship of dispossessed tenants, increasing vagrancy, and social unrest resulted in statutes designed to limit the practice. However, the process continued virtually unchecked, reaching its peak in the late 17th cent. In the early 18th cent. there was very little inclosure, but from 1750 to 1800 inclosure by private act of Parliament increased dramatically. The General Enclosure Act (1801) standardized much of the process, and an act of 1845 provided for the incorporation of all inclosures in a single act each year. By this time, however, the movement toward general inclosure was largely completed. Although the process remained harsh for the small farmer, the period of parliamentary inclosures paralleled a period of increasing industrial use of labor. Inclosed land did promote more efficient farming and was able to produce an ever-increasing agricultural output during the early 19th cent., when the population was growing rapidly.

Bibliography

See E. C. K. Gonner, Common Land and Inclosure (2d ed. 1912, repr. 1966); W. E. Tate, The English Village Community and the Enclosure Movements (1967).

References in periodicals archive ?
Chapter (029 2030 4400), Richard Woods: Inclosure Acts.
2010)) ("When a party holds some portion of land in actual adverse possession, and that possession is under color of title, 'the party so holding has constructive possession of all the premises outside of his inclosure to the limits of his claim or assurance of title.
If it is not voluntarily delivered, he shall cause the building or inclosure to be broken open in such manner as he reasonably believes will cause the least damage to the building or inclosure, and take the property into his possession.
Subchapter B requires that distilling operations occur only at distilling plants established on registered, bonded, permitted premises, and not "in any dwelling house, in any shed, yard, or inclosure connected with any dwelling house.
In Jebel, Ali of Dubai (UAE) Alstom has revealed its new mobile services, including of a mobile inclosure to repair active parts of transformers in a controlled environment, advanced drying equipment and a container-sized high voltage testing module for diagnostic and repair.
It consists of a mobile inclosure to repair active parts of transformers in a controlled environment, advanced drying equipment and a container-sized high voltage testing module for diagnostic and repair.
Here, Austen replaces the expected Radcliffean, or itinerary-type description of place with Henry Tilney's "lecture on the picturesque": "by an easy transition from a piece of rocky fragment and the withered oak which he had placed near its summit, to oaks in general, to forests, the inclosure of them, waste lands, crown lands and government, he shortly found himself arrived at politics; and from politics, it was an easy step to silence" (81).
Graham Priest argues that all logical paradoxes that include set-theoretic paradoxes and semantic paradoxes share a common structure, the Inclosure Schema, so they should be treated as one family.
Queen's Inclosure primary school, where he served pupils for 13 years, said: "We are devastated.
Raymond Elsmore, 82, who had worked for about 10 years helping children at Queens Inclosure Primary School, Waterlooville, Hampshire, suffered serious injuries in the accident which happened at 3.
VIEWS John Shuttleworth Applications can be made under the 1981 Wildlife and Countryside Act, and in this case, rely on historic documentary evidence of inclosure awards from the 18th century, which set out public roads and other highways.
This fact, coupled with a probably high value for the stellar absorption coefficient, enables us to ascribe a temperature T at each point P such that the properties of an element of mass in the neighborhood of P are the same as if it were adiabatically inclosed in an inclosure at a temperature T" [24, p.