(redirected from independency)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Legal, Wikipedia.
Related to independency: demeanor, consider, aloofness, required, staunch, woe


1 City (1990 pop. 9,942), seat of Montgomery co., SE Kans., on the Verdigris River, near the Okla. line, in an important oil-producing area where corn and wheat are also grown. Light aircraft, motor vehicle parts, cement, and printing and publishing are important industries; natural gas is distributed. The town was founded (1869) on a former Osage reservation. It boomed with the discovery of natural gas in 1881 and oil in 1903.

2 City (1990 pop. 112,301), seat of Jackson co., W Mo., a suburb of Kansas City; inc. 1849. Its manufactures include machinery, building materials, apparel, foods, paper products, and ordnance. Soybeans, corn, and sorghum are grown, and there is dairying and natural-gas production in the area. In the 1830s and 40s, Independence was the starting point for expeditions over the Santa Fe TrailSanta Fe Trail,
important caravan route of the W United States, extending c.780 mi (1,260 km) from Independence, Mo., SW to Santa Fe, N.Mex. Independence and Westport, Mo., were the chief points where wagons, teams, and supplies were obtained.
..... Click the link for more information.
, the Oregon TrailOregon Trail,
overland emigrant route in the United States from the Missouri River to the Columbia River country (all of which was then called Oregon). The pioneers by wagon train did not, however, follow any single narrow route.
..... Click the link for more information.
, and the California Trail. A group of Mormons settled there in 1831, and the city is the world headquarters of the Community of ChristCommunity of Christ,
formerly the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints,
religious group that regards itself as the successor of the church founded by Joseph Smith.
..... Click the link for more information.
 (formerly the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints). Independence was the home of President Harry S. TrumanTruman, Harry S.,
1884–1972, 33d President of the United States, b. Lamar, Mo. Early Life and Political Career

He grew up on a farm near Independence, Mo., worked at various jobs, and tended the family farm.
..... Click the link for more information.
 and is the seat of the Harry S. Truman Library and Museum, on whose grounds the former president is buried. Other points of interest include the old county jail and museum (1859; restored); the old county courthouse (1825; restored); and nearby Fort Osage (1808; reconstructed). Park Univ. has a campus in Independence.


the achievement of political independence by a colonized country after a period of colonial rule (see COLONIALISM). In the 20th century, nationalist independence movements grew in nearly every colony and were of primary importance in ending colonial rule in most THIRD WORLD countries after World War II. It was through these movements that European notions of NATIONALISM were introduced to the Third World, along with mass participation in politics. Independence in Latin America was achieved in the early part of the 19th century in the context of the Napoleonic Wars in which Spain was embroiled, but Africa and many countries in Asia did not achieve independence until the second half of the 20th century



in logic, the property of a sentence of some theory or formula of a calculus such that neither the sentence itself nor its negation can be derived from a given system of sentences (for example, a system of axioms) or, correspondingly, from a conjunction of given formulas, respectively.

A sentence can be shown to be independent of a given system of axioms by proving the consistency of two systems of axioms that can be obtained from the addition, respectively, of the given proposition and its negation to the given system of axioms. Independence is also related to the property of deductive completeness of axiomatic theories. If a consistent system of axioms is deductively complete, a contradiction results when any proposition (independent of the system) of the given theory is added as an axiom to the system. In speaking of the independence of intuitively formulated sentences, “derivability” is understood intuitively, “in accordance with the laws of logic.” On the other hand, strictly defined rules of inference (the question of the independence of which can also be raised) are always fixed when considering formal calculi.

It is possible to speak of “expressive” independence in a way analogous to the “deductive” independence described above. In this case, a concept (term) is said to be independent of a given system of concepts (terms) if it cannot be defined solely by means of these concepts (terms), although again, as above, it is assumed that a set of rules of definition has been fixed with respect to which the question of independence can be raised. The term “independence” (in both senses) is, finally, also applied to sets of sentences (formulas) or concepts (terms). A set is said to be independent (and also nonredundant, or minimal) if every one of its members is independent of the remaining members in the sense defined above. A number of highly important results concerning independence have been obtained in the axiomatic theory of sets and in mathematical logic.




one of the most important concepts in probability theory. We give as an example the definition of the independence of two random events. Let A and B be two random events, and P(A) and P(B) their probabilities. The conditional probability P(Bǀ A) of the event B under the condition that A occurs is defined by the equality

where P(A&B) is the probability that A and B occur simultaneously. The event B is said to be independent of A if

(*) P(B\A) = P(B)

Equation (*) can be written in a form symmetric in A and B:

P(A&B) = P(A)P(B)

from which it is evident that if B is independent of A, then A is independent of B. Thus, we may simply speak of the independence of two events.

The specific meaning of this definition of independence can be clarified in the following manner. It is known that the probability of an event is expressed by the frequency of its occurrence. Therefore, if a large number N of trials is carried out, then the frequency with which the event B appears in all ¿V trials and the frequency with which it appears in those trials in which the event A occurs will be approximately equal. Thus, the independence of events indicates either that there is no relation between the occurrence of these events or that the relation is not essential. Thus, the event in which a randomly selected person has a last name beginning, for example, with the letter “A” and the event that this person will win the next drawing of a lottery are independent.

Pairwise and mutual independence are distinguished in defining the independence of several (more than two) events. The events A1, A2, . . .,An are said to be pairwise independent if any two of them are independent in the sense of the definition given above and are mutually independent if the probability that any of them occurs is independent of the occurrence of an arbitrary combination of the other events.

The concept of independence is also extended to random variables. The random variables X and Y are said to be independent if for any two intervals Δ1 and Δ2, the events that the variable X belongs to Δ2 and that Y belongs to Δ2 are independent. Highly important schemes in probability theory are based on the hypothesis that various events or random variables are independent.


Gnedenko, B. V. Kurs teorii veroiatnostei, 4th ed. Moscow, 1965.
Feller, W. Vvedenie v teoriiu veroiatnostei i ee prilozheniia, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1964. (Translated from English.)


Bastille Day
July 14; French national holiday celebrating the fall of the Bastille prison (1789). [Fr. Hist.: NCE, 245]
Declaration of Independence
by delegates of the American Thirteen Colonies announcing U.S. independence from Great Britain (1776). [Am. Hist.: NCE, 733]
Huggins, Henry
self-reliant boy; earns money for toys. [Children’s Lit.: Henry Huggins]
Independence Day
Fourth of July; U.S. patriotic holiday celebrating the Declaration of Independence. [Am. Hist.: NCE, 990]
often thought of as the state of “independent Yankees.” [Pop. Culture: Misc.]
Republican party members who voted independently. [Am. Hist.: Jameson, 337]
Canada’s French-speaking province has often attempted to attain independence from rest of country. [Canadian Hist.: NCE, 2555]
Tree of Liberty
symbolic post or tree hung with flags and other devices and crowned with the liberty cap. [Misc.: Brewer Dictionary, 911]
white oak
indicates self-sufficiency. [Flower Symbolism: Flora Symbolica, 178]


a city in W Missouri, near Kansas City: starting point for the Santa Fe, Oregon, and California Trails (1831--44). Pop.: 112 079 (2003 est.)
References in periodicals archive ?
Unfortunately, the New Governance Rules are silent in respect to the procedures to be taken if a Board Member lacks independency and just mention the conditions under which a Board Member is conflicted.
Table (5) shows that the correlation between independency and authority at work and organizational commitment is positive and is significant at 1%, and the correlation is very low (r = 0.
Key topics of the event include Islamic retail banking to lead asset growth; accidental compliance breaches; financial independency for women in the GCC; retail market penetration of Islamic banks and Islamic mortgages.
Regarding the degree of his independency, Qaneeifard is bluffing too.
Fakhoury added that to achieve this objective, a bigger role is required to enforce the culture of independency and innovation.
The biggest breakthrough that Esthec provides is the independency.
They concluded that in HIV-exposed infants with clinical PCP, adjunctive corticosteroid therapy does not appear to add benefit regarding time to recovery or oxygen independency, but early administration may improve survival.
The issues are numerous and not few times various settlements are found: the budgetary consequences of the European monetary integration, conciliation of the centralized European monetary policy with the des-centralized national budgetary policies, the sufficient coordination of the economic policies upon the conditions of unique monetary policy, harmonization of the independency with the liability of the European Central Bank etc.
It's called Independency and took up the lengthy and fascinating first half.
Scholars of literature and religion as well as of history discuss such topics as reading medieval medical texts with an open mind, ordering human growth in Tibetan medical and religious embryologies, Paracelsus' Great Wound Surgery, vegetal prejudice and healing territories in early modern England, Donne and the noble art, discovery and debate in early modern English medicine as exemplified by Willis and Sydenham on diabetes, and English independency and medical conservatism in the 17th century.
He suggested the United Nations should reconsider its appointment, select a new candidate if possible, or clearly explain to Cambodians the independency and transparency of U.
Everett Gill, a doctoral graduate of Southern Seminary, began the debate with an examination of New Testament principles of church organization, namely the headship of Christ, a converted membership, obedience to prescribed ordinances, local church independency, (52) and the plurality of elders and deacons.

Full browser ?