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the philosophical doctrine and methodological position that reject either the objectivity of causal relations (ontological indeterminism) or the cognitive value of causal explanations in science (methodological indeterminism).

In the history of philosophy, from ancient Greek philosophy (Socrates) to the present day, indeterminism and determinism have been advanced as opposing conceptions relating to the problem of human will and freedom of choice, the problem of man’s responsibility for his actions. Indeterminism treats the will as an autonomous force and contends that the principles of causality are not applicable in explaining human choice and behavior. Indeterminists accuse determinists of fatalism. Marxism bases itself on the view that “far from assuming fatalism, determinism in fact provides a basis for reasonable action” (V. I. Lenin, Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 1, p. 440) and that determinism “in no way destroys man’s reason, or conscience, or appraisal … of his actions” (ibid., p. 159).

In contemporary bourgeois philosophy various forms of indeterminism have become quite widespread. Thus, the Baden school of neo-Kantianism limited the principle of determinism to the realm of the natural sciences and denied that it was applicable to “sciences of the spirit” (W. Windelband and H. Rickert). Neopositivism, pragmatism, and personalism tried to limit determinism to the realm of logic.

The problem of indeterminism versus determinism became particularly relevant with the growth of modern quantum physics. It was found that the principles of classical determinism were not suitable for describing the processes at work in the subatomic world. In this connection attempts were made to interpret the basic laws of quantum theory in an indeterminist or agnostic sense. In this effort, one of the historical forms of determinism, namely, mechanistic determinism, was equated with determinism in general. The difficulties involved in clarifying the problems of causality in modern physics resulted in the strengthening of tendencies toward indeterminism in modern bourgeois philosophy. Thus B. Russell, H. Reichenbach, and P. Frank contended that determinism in general had no scientific value and that the axiom of causality had no place even in classical physics: the assertion of causality could not be applied to the relation between observable facts, since the results of measurement were of the nature of the probability distribution. Such ideas as that of the “free will” of the electron and that individual microphenomena are guided by teleological forces were other expressions of indeterminism.

Dialectical materialism, while rejecting indeterminism, at the same time points out the insufficiency of earlier mechanistic concepts of determinism and presents a new generalized concept of determinism based on the achievements of modern natural and social science.


References in periodicals archive ?
The anti-realist (if not idealist) Mahayana idea that Wallace seems to have in mind, simplifying greatly, is that there is no concepttual-construction-independent or independently existing substantive reality, but both deterministic and indeterministic models depict reality as a conceptual-construction-independent, independently existing substantive or objective reality: on the deterministic view, a conception-independent reality is constituted by a sequence of discrete events all of which are causally necessitated; on the indeterministic view, a conception-independent reality is constituted by a sequence of discrete events many of which are not causally necessitated.
12) The second is novel: I want to combine such indeterministic efficient causality (the past affects the present) with Peters' retroactive causality (the future affects the present).
In cases of indeterministic causation, Perry posits that "conduct that has the effect of placing someone within the reference class in question might perhaps be characterized as having caused a distinct form of damage.
As in the case of the classical method, if the world is indeed indeterministic or random, it would be a completely arbitrary decision to restrict the number of possible outcomes of any future event to a number less than [infinity].
Indeterministic by nature, the artistic system deals with uncertainty on a daily basis.
Within SEM, such relationships can be termed as indeterministic and this study runs two separate structural models, one model with causal relations from Use to Satisfaction (H7a) and another from Satisfaction to Use (H7b).
If the indeterministic part is zero, IFS theory coincides with the fuzzy set theory.
It is often said that the quantum world is fuzzy and indeterministic.
Science is further limited in the quantum world whose "facts" appear indeterministic.
A perfect example of an autopoietic system, an ENN is the best available tool today for analyzing and even forecasting indeterministic systems.
Hawkins and Kapadia (1984) blame the representativeness problem on contemporary education because it forces deterministic cognitive strategies rather than supporting the development of probability concepts in an indeterministic environment.
14) Prigogine and Stengers's new science of complexity likewise re-evaluated Lucretius's theory of atomism which provided a model of how order and disorder, determinism and indeterministic processes can be reconciled.