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a. a ground for legal action; matter giving rise to a lawsuit
b. the lawsuit itself
2. (in the philosophy of Aristotle) any of four requirements for a thing's coming to be, namely material (material cause), its nature (formal cause), an agent (efficient cause), and a purpose (final cause)


any immediate, or more indirect, factor precipitating an outcome. See also CAUSALITY AND CAUSAL RELATIONSHIP.



a phenomenon that directly determines or gives rise to another phenomenon, the effect. In the real world all phenomena and processes are in a state of universal connection and interaction. The concept of “cause” presupposes the singling out of a particular group of phenomena or a system, within the framework of which a causal relation is established between particular phenomena and processes.

Every phenomenon is grounded in several others and is determined by them, its causes. In the process of cognition the researcher inevitably goes beyond the mere description of facts and turns to an investigation of the laws of their origin, development, and functioning, seeking the causes that determine the corresponding properties of a particular object. The movement of thought from description to causal explanation is the movement of cognition from outer to inner, from phenomenon to essence.

As the basis and essence of the effect, the cause functions as the originating and determining element in the relationship between phenomena. The interconnection and mutual conditioning of phenomena take an innumerable variety of forms. Accordingly, the types of causes are extremely diverse. In modern science causes are classified by the most varied criteria. Thus, depending on the nature of the causal relations, causes are classified as ideal and material, informational and energetic (energeticheskie), dynamic and statistical, simple and compound, single-factor and multiple-factor, systemic and nonsystemic, external and internal, primary and nonprimary, objective and subjective, and so on.

It is customary to distinguish the cause from the circumstances of its operation. In the social sciences, causes are distinguished from reasons—the processes contributing to the formation and manifestation of causes. Consideration of the diversity of phenomena gives rise to the conception of causality as a fundamental feature of reality.



Actions, omissions, events, conditions, or a combination thereof, which led to the accident or incident investigation (ICAO).
References in periodicals archive ?
This component will assist MENR to: (i) identify and analyze the main direct and indirect cause of deforestation and degradation; (ii) identify effective REDD+ strategy options; (iii) design a implementation framework for REDD+; and (iv) assess possible social/ environmental impacts associated to the REDD+ strategic options (i.
And surely we've all come across the cause of this next accident at some time in our lives: "The indirect cause of the accident was a little guy in a small car with a big mouth.
In addition, impaired biking can be an indirect cause of serious calamity for other drivers who must take evasive action to avoid colliding with a drunken cyclist who could also end up crashing into a pedestrian.
Pathologist Dr Wyn Williams said the cause of death was bleeding from the heart, stab wounds and he said another indirect cause was Dr Williams's depression.
AIDS has become an important underlying factor in direct maternal deaths, an indirect cause of maternal deaths in itself and a contributor to other indirect causes of maternal deaths.
Narcotics are an important indirect cause of crime, since addicts always need money, but most addicts were criminals before they turned to drugs, Wilson and Herrnstein say.
If action or inaction by a service provider is ever found to be the direct or indirect cause of an incident with the A380, the liability would be immense," Wignes said.
Yesterday's news will have come as a relief to Southgate, who was disappointed to have been the indirect cause of his former Villa team-mate's on-off transfer.
Sadly, it was his love of music that was the indirect cause of his death from lung cancer.
It's the indirect cause of Hugh's death and should be demolished without further excuse or delay.
And though there's been a steady decline in the numbers of mothers dying because of eclampsia, haemorrhage or thrombosis (they have almost halved), deaths from what are called indirect causes - heart disease, kidney disease, diabetes, depression - have remained steady.
Indirect causes include local poverty and the absence of a regulated law enforcement system.