Indirect Speech

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reported speech

When we tell other people what someone else told us, it is called indirect or reported speech. We use reporting verbs to introduce the information that was spoken previously.
The most common so-called “reporting verbs” are say and tell. When we use tell, we need to use another person’s name, or a personal pronoun representing him or her, as an indirect object.
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Indirect Speech


or indirect discourse, the speech of some person transmitted by a speaker (or writer) in a sentence clause subordinate to his own phrase, which introduces the discourse.

During the transmission of indirect speech, the utterance is transformed according to certain rules. For example, the indirect speech of a third person is transmitted as (in Russian): On skazal, chto budet doma (”He said that he will be at home”).

References in periodicals archive ?
The name suggests a literal truth--"whose God is He"--and is expressed without irony or the slanted perspective of indirect discourse.
The style of Medea's composition reflects the cinema of poetry which Pasolini proposes as an alternative to contemporary bourgeois cinema, especially with regard to the cinema of poetry's privileging of free indirect discourse.
In the present study we investigate the degree to which the strategies of free indirect discourse employed by Virginia Woolf in Mrs.
Free indirect discourse, Keen concludes, is one technique that "overrides the resistance to empathizing often displayed by members of an in-group regarding the emotional states of others marked out as different.
Austen was the first of the English writers to use free indirect discourse extensively to represent the consciousness of her heroines.
The child protagonist's precocious imaginative life, rendered in free indirect discourse, outdistances the very limited lines allowed to her by polite society.
Let me only take as examples two different passages that employ free indirect discourse (customarily referred to as FID) to illustrate emotions of (either) Miriam and (or) Paul, where the prominence and significant deictic roles of personal and possessive pronouns, which is characteristic of free indirect discourse (and has been extensively studied in connection with it), may also be witnessed:
Referring to the use of Free Indirect Discourse elsewhere in Conrad's work, Jeremy Hawthorn maintains that this device enables us to recognise not only what the writer is interested in revealing, but also from what standpoint he or she wishes the reader to experience this revelation (1990: 1).
The latter's use of free indirect discourse to represent the real becomes readable as, in a sense, Austen's ultimate subject matter.
Pagano observes how Zola and Verga deploy what Bakhtin has termed "character zones" as a loose form of free indirect discourse.
Modal patterns of direct and indirect discourse in Peninsular Spanish: An analysis within the framework of speech act typology.
Free indirect discourse, being inherently 'double-voiced', is likely to be a vehicle for dialogical contact.