infant mortality

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infant mortality

It is common lore among hackers (and in the electronics industry at large) that the chances of sudden hardware failure drop off exponentially with a machine's time since first use (that is, until the relatively distant time at which enough mechanical wear in I/O devices and thermal-cycling stress in components has accumulated for the machine to start going senile). Up to half of all chip and wire failures happen within a new system's first few weeks; such failures are often referred to as "infant mortality" problems (or, occasionally, as "sudden infant death syndrome").

See bathtub curve, burn-in period.

Infant Mortality


the rate of death of live-borns during the first year of life. Infant mortality, with the birthrate and mortality, is a statistical index of natural population dynamics; it is expressed by the number of deceased infants per 100 or per 1,000 live-births. In the USSR a live-born is defined as an infant who has taken at least one breath. Infant mortality is basically a function of socioeconomic causes and shifts in one direction or another when these change. Thanks to measures of the system of maternity and childhood protection and to the system of antenatal protection of the fetus created by Soviet physicians, infant mortality in the USSR has sharply decreased (see Table 1).

According to UN data, infant mortality in the socialist countries in 1969 (per 1,000 births) was as follows: Bulgaria,

Table 1. Infant mortality in Russia and the USSR
Deceased infants per 1,000 births269182813525

30.5; Hungary, 33.6; German Democratic Republic, 20.4; Poland, 34.3; Rumania, 54.9; and Czechoslovakia, 22.9. In contrast to the USSR, in certain capitalist countries infants who die before their births are recorded are considered to be stillborn; therefore, the indexes of infant morality in those countries do not correspond to reality and give lower figures.

References in periodicals archive ?
It's hard to pinpoint the exact causes behind the rising infant mortality rates," Dr.
It is hard to know the exact causes behind the increase in both neonatal and infant mortality rates, but I fear it is part of a wider trend.
BEIRUT: The infant mortality rate in Gaza has risen for the first time in five decades, according to an UNRWA study, and a U.
Davis, Hofferth, and Shenassa analyzed data collected from 159,244 mothers who gave birth to live, single babies between 2004 and 2008 in order to determine whether there was a link between gestational weight gain (GWG), mothers' body mass index (BMI), and infant mortality.
Turkey switched to natural gas after the UK and the following was noted in a study published in January 2013: "Our results indicate that the rate of increase in the use of natural gas has resulted in a significant reduction in the rate of infant mortality in Turkey.
Researchers concluded that in Bangladesh, antenatal multiple micronutrient compared with iron-folic acid supplementation did not reduce all-cause infant mortality to age 6 months but resulted in a non-statistically significant reduction in stillbirths and significant reductions in preterm births and low birth weight.
Infant mortality is thus significantly related to extreme prematurity.
Otherwise, the infant mortality rate would be mismeasured, and if this mismeasurement is not random, it could confound the econometric analysis.
Fikree used population-based surveys and in-depth interviews to gather data on infant mortality in rural Pakistan.
Here's the saddest note of all: Statistics released in May show that Milwaukee's infant mortality rate rose 17.
Urban infant mortality rates began to show some improvement by the 1910s, presumably a reflection of the numerous newly established public health initiatives, but rural infant mortality rates remained high.
Fishback, Haines, and Kantor assess the effectiveness of federal New Deal relief programs by examining their impact on infant mortality rates.

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