The first or basic infinitive (the form of dictionary entries) most frequently appears with the verb of existence in different structures: 1) infinitival
phrases as subjects, 2) basic infinitives in the context of nouns or adjectives, 3) North Saami verb of existence and the infinitive substituting the conditional perfect, a structure that implicates 'being close' in Finnish (so called propinquative), 4) the infinitive in relative clauses, 5) the supine structure in Saami (to express negative clause of purpose).
That is, the italicised NPs function only as the indirect objects of the matrix predicates, and not as constituents of the infinitival
The coordinations in (23) all contain the head verb vragen 'ask' governing an extraposed infinitival
complement without complementizer, and in each of them the anterior conjunct qualifies as a superclause.
Pille Penjam's talk "The constructions of da-and ma-infinitives in Old Written Estonian" compared the uses and functions of infinitival
complements in Old Written Estonian and contemporary written Estonian, using corpus data from the 17th century (a selection texts by Georg Muller, Heinrich Stahl and Christoph Blume, approx.
The perception verbs and the infinitival
In the first construction type (examples 23-6), it is the infinitival
clause, in the second the adverbial (examples 27-9), and in the third one a reverse word order (the clause expressing the requested action is moved to the initial position in the sentence, examples 30-2).
First, the variables are used for tracking entities for purposes of anaphor, deixis, relative clauses, infinitival
clauses, and the like.
The short Infinitival
endings -da and -ge have the widest distribution, and the use of variants is conditioned by morphological as well as by phonological factors.
The absence here of infinitival
to (otherwise mandatorily present unless the absence is sanctioned by (W)BIC) signals the presence, as governing verb, of an element that is universally necessarily finite, that has no non-finite distribution, that is a "core" modal.
Asking whether forms like malluku are infinitives or infinitival
nouns, Seminara decides for the latter because temporal expressions with infinitives would be rendered ina INF, not the attested ina umi INF (pp.
In constructions containing an infinitival
dependent, a higher argument is often construed as the subject of the infinitive verb.
An example of this type of ambiguity is offered by English to, which functions variously as a dative marker, as a directional preposition, as a pure case marker, and as an infinitival