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see nervous systemnervous system,
network of specialized tissue that controls actions and reactions of the body and its adjustment to the environment. Virtually all members of the animal kingdom have at least a rudimentary nervous system.
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the cordlike association of nerve tissues that links the brain and nerve ganglia by innervation to the other organs and tissues of the body.

A nerve primarily consists of nerve fibers. In vertebrates many nerves converge to form a bundle that is surrounded by a connective tissue sheath, the perineurium; the thin interstitial layers of connective tissue that separate the individual fibers deep within the bundle constitute the endoneurium. Finally, the entire nerve trunk, comprising several bundles, is covered by an additional sheath, the epineurium.

Nerves can be sensory (also called afferent or centripetal) or motor (also called efferent or centrifugal). Some nerves, for example, those innervating the skeletal muscles, mainly include myelinated, or medullated, fibers; others, for example, the sympathetic nerves, largely consist of unmyelinated, or unmedullated, fibers.

In reptiles, birds, mammals, and man 12 pairs of cranial nerves branch from the brain: the olfactory (cranial nerve I), the optic (cranial nerve II), the oculomotor (cranial nerve III), the trochlear (cranial nerve IV), the trigeminal (cranial nerve V), the abducent (cranial nerve VI), the facial (cranial nerve VII), the acoustic (cranial nerve VIII), the glossopharyngeal (cranial nerve IX), the vagus (cranial nerve X), the accessory (cranial nerve XI), and the hypoglossal (cranial nerve XII). Only the first ten pairs are present in fish and amphibians.

In man there are 31 pairs of spinal nerves: eight cervical, 12 thoracic, five lumbar, five sacral, and one coccygeal. Each pair innervates the effectors and receptors of a certain part of the body. The spinal nerves branch from the spinal cord into two roots—the posterior, or sensory, and the anterior, or motor. Both roots then combine to form a common trunk that consists of both sensory and motor fibers.

Several adjacent nerves can be combined into nerve plexuses, where an exchange of fibers between different nerves can take place. Three large plexuses are distinguished: the cervical, the brachial, and the lumbosacral. Each nerve plexus is the origin of several pairs of nerves; for example, the sacral portion of the lumbosacral plexus gives rise to the sciatic nerves.

Nerves that originate in the ganglia, trunks, and plexuses of the autonomic nervous system constitute a specific group. The optic nerve is remarkable for its large number of fibers; there are more than 1 million in the human optic nerve. Usually, however, there are 103 -104 fibers in a nerve. In invertebrates certain nerves are known to consist of only a few fibers. The peripheral nervous system in animals and man consists of aggregations of nerves.



A bundle of nerve fibers or processes held together by connective tissue.


Any one of the ribs of a groined vault, but esp. a rib which forms one of the sides of a compartment of the groining.


1. any of the cordlike bundles of fibres that conduct sensory or motor impulses between the brain or spinal cord and another part of the body
2. a large vein in a leaf
3. any of the veins of an insect's wing
References in periodicals archive ?
A comparison of bilateral infraorbital nerve block with intravenous fentanyl for analgesia following clet lip repair in children.
05) lower comparing with the pain threshold of infraorbital nerve at opposite side (Table 4).
Pain thresholds differences in patients with hypoalgesia were statistically significant: threshold of inferior alveolar nerve at fracture side was higher than threshold of infraorbital nerve (p < 0.
Bilateral infraorbital nerve block is superior to peri-incisional infiltration for analgesia after repair of cleft lip.
The dentist and surgeons of head and neck have to know the exactly position of IOF (Hollinshead; Dubrul; Figun & Garino), because the anesthetic must be put on the foramen in order that it diffuses by the canal and causes the anterior superior alveolar nerve block (that appears on the infraorbital canal of 6,0 to 10,0mm before the infraorbital nerve emerges on the foramen), and in consequence, the block of the branches (which proceed of that nerve) that supply the central superior incisive teeth, lateral incisive and superior canine, ipsilateral to the blocked nerve (Zide & Swift).
The infraorbital nerve is responsible for the sensory innervation to the skin of the malar area between the lower eyelid and upper lip.
Care was taken to identify and preserve the sphenopalatine ganglia, vidian nerve, infraorbital nerve, and the lacrimal contributions from the sphenopalatine ganglia.
If the trocar enters the pterygomaxillary space, it could damage the internal maxillary artery, the infraorbital nerve, or branches of the trigeminal nerve.
If the maxillary sinus is affected, barotrauma can cause numbness in the region that is innervated by the infraorbital nerve.
Eyelid Schwannomas are presumed to originate from supraorbital, supratrochlear and infraorbital nerves.
In the included studies, injury to the trigeminal, mental, lingual, buccal, facial, inferior alveolar, and infraorbital nerves was observed in patients undergoing bilateral sagittal ramus osteotomy.
Local infiltration included, infiltration of nasal mucosa, supratrochlear & infraorbital nerves.