insomnia


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Related to insomnia: Fatal insomnia

insomnia,

abnormal wakefulness or inability to sleepsleep,
resting state in which an individual becomes relatively quiescent and relatively unaware of the environment. During sleep, which is in part a period of rest and relaxation, most physiological functions such as body temperature, blood pressure, and rate of breathing and
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. The condition may result from illness or physical discomfort, or it may be caused by stimulants such as coffee or drugs. However, frequently some psychological factor, such as worry or tension, is the cause. Mild insomnia may often be relieved by a soothing activity like reading or listening to soft music. Chronic or severe insomnia requires treatment of the underlying physical or psychological disorder. In a few, very rare cases, individuals in certain families are subject to an incurable inherited insomia caused by prions that form plaques in the thalamusthalamus
, mass of nerve cells centrally located in the brain just below the cerebrum and resembling a large egg in size and shape. The thalamus is a routing station for all incoming sensory impulses except those of smell, transmitting them to higher (cerebral) nerve centers.
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; the disease appears suddenly in adulthood and ultimately is fatal.

Many patients respond to the assurance that their sleeplessness is a result of normal anxieties or a treatable physical disorder. Opportunities to ventilate anxieties often ease distress and helps resume normal sleeping patterns. Elderly persons are encourage to exercise more during the day; instructed relaxation, administration of tryptophan, and intake of warm milk helps some patients sleep. Sedatives and hypnotics drugs may be employed if the sleeplessness is impairing the subject's sense of well being. Those who wake because of pain receive an analgesic at bedtime; for those who experience insomnia accompanied with depression, an antidepressant often suffices.

Insomnia

 

(also agrypnia), disturbed sleep. Insomnia manifests itself as a shortening of the period of nocturnal sleep, delay in onset of sleep, early awakening, and repeated interruption of sleep during the night. Sleep is also impaired qualitatively; it becomes more superficial, the length of deep sleep is diminished, and the balance between dream-sleep and dreamless sleep is upset. Insomnia occurs in cases of neurosis, certain cardiovascular and psychological illnesses, neuro infections, and injury to those parts of the brain that regulate the correct alternation of sleep and wakefulness. In healthy people, it may occur after great physical or mental stress, fatigue, strong emotional experiences, and similar instances. The total absence of nocturnal or daytime sleep for long durations almost never occurs.

Treatment involves adherence to the correct regimen of work and rest, the elimination of irritating factors, bathing, and exercise. The patient may be prescribed tranquilizers and, in cases of persistent insomnia, soporifics. In cases of insomnia caused by illness, treatment consists in eliminating the original illness responsible for the insomnia.

REFERENCES

Pervov, L. G. Son i ego narushenie, Moscow, 1965.
Fedotov, D. D. Son i ego rasstroistvo. Moscow, 1966.

V. S. ROTENBERG

insomnia

[in′säm·nē·ə]
(medicine)
Sleeplessness; disturbed sleep; prolonged inability to sleep.

insomnia

The inability to sleep. If you suffer from it, the solution is to look up all the terms under "standards" in this encyclopedia. Dozing should occur shortly. If that does not work... well, at least you will become the computer guru on your block!
References in periodicals archive ?
If insomnia is your problem, remember there is a range of simple techniques to help you get a better night's sleep: | Try to ensure that you have fixed times for going to bed and waking up, and avoid daytime naps, to help your body establish its natural rhythm; | Avoid caffeine, nicotine and alcohol within six hours of going to bed; | Avoid hard exercise within four hours of going to bed; | Avoid eating a heavy meal just before bed; | Make sure the bedroom is not too hot, cold, noisy or bright, | Try to relax and wind down before going to bed.
6% of the UK sample were likely to develop acute insomnia in a year.
Test results showed that 89 HIV-positive people (46%) had insomnia, and 59 (29.
Overnight sleep studies are not indicated in routine evaluation of chronic insomnia, but might be quite useful if there is a suspicion of a breathing disorder or movement disorder, or when the diagnosis is uncertain or initial treatment attempts have failed.
Physicians may avoid discussing problems such as sleep difficulties due to the time constraints of GP office visits and the perception that treatment of insomnia centers upon pharmacological substances that are associated with risks.
Among the most widely used are the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (4), which provides a global assessment of sleep, and the Insomnia Severity Index (5), specifically designed for insomnia.
Long-term, non-nightly administration of zolpidem in the treatment of patients with primary insomnia.
But like humans with insomnia, the insomniac flies have trouble falling asleep and staying asleep, managing to stay asleep for only about half an hour at a time.
However, since the early 1990s, a new class of drugs for insomnia called nonbenzodiazepines has been on the market.
The proportion of nurses reporting negative effects of insomnia on both health and mood respectively was significantly higher for those experiencing difficulty "falling sleep" (73.