The calculation method is to take each line of instruction address in the call stack into the form of (DLL name + address offset value).
Instead of directly calculating the instruction address, the form of (DLL name + address offset value) is adopted to avoid being affected by ASLR technique  in operating system.
A branch instruction supposes an interruption of the sequential flow of instructions traversing the pipeline because the next instruction address
is unknown until the branch is executed.
A prefetch instruction designed to prefetch the target of an indirect jump i conceptually stores the instruction address
of i, which is then used to index the indirect-target table to retrieve the actual target addresses to prefetch.
Additionally, a programmable instruction address
breakpoint is provided to assist in software debugging.
Performing the table lookup in such a manner can be very efficient, since it can be done in the early stages of the pipeline (the instruction address
is usually known at fetch stage).
In interrupt-based techniques, the program is interrupted after execution of each instruction, and instruction address
information is recorded.
The lookup routines map a VAX instruction address
to a translated Alpha AXP code address.
Each entry in the MIROM contains two instruction parcels plus the next instruction address
and a stop bit.