intelligence test


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intelligence test

[in′tel·ə·jəns ‚test]
(psychology)
A series of standardized tasks or problems presented to an individual to measure his innate capacity to think, conceive, or reason; examples are the Stanford-Binet test and the Wechsler-Bellevue intelligence test.

intelligence test

a set of items, usually arranged in ascending order of difficulty which test an individual's level of INTELLIGENCE by generating an estimate of their IQ (INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENT). Among the best-known general tests are the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, the British Ability Scales, and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. More specialized tests (e.g. Ravens Progressive Matrices), as well as subscales within many general tests, provide separate measures of more specific cognitive abilities such as spatial ability

The development of testing procedures has been based on the assumption that the greater proportion of ability is inherited. Tests are therefore designed to measure innate ability, while controlling for environmental and cultural factors. Many critics, however, claim that it is not possible to achieve this aim, and that test results remain culturally biased towards the norms and values of dominant groups in society. According to this view intelligence tests therefore fail to reflect the true intelligence levels of subordinate class, race or gender groups.

The educational and political significance of intelligence testing can be seen in the fierce reaction to Jensen's reopening of the NATURE–NURTURE DEBATE in 1969 (see L. Kamin, The Science and Politics ofI.Q.). Jensen's claim that 80% of intelligence was due to genetic factors was followed with even more controversial arguments attributing a significant proportion of the lower test performance of American blacks to this cause. Test results were therefore suggested as legitimizing the differential educational treatment received in schools by different social groups.

Within the field of education, educationists have often argued that concentration on intelligence testing and the automatic equation of a high IQ score with brightness and achievement have straitjacketed the education system for over half a century (e.g. the effects of 11+ in allocating children to different types of educational provision and experience). Others have consistently defended the predictive powers of IQ tests. Currently there tends to be more agreement that tests are neither wholly neutral nor wholly valid (see VALIDITY), but they remain a useful diagnostic tool in the assessment of cognitive and learning difficulties.

References in periodicals archive ?
So scientists turned to what's called the genome-wide association study: They sequence bits of genetic material scattered across the DNA of many unrelated people, then look to see whether people who share a particular condition - say, a high intelligence test score - also share the same genetic marker.
The majority of tasks on intelligence tests require vision, such as visual pattern recognition.
Intelligence tests can be made up of Raven's Matrices, word analogies, word recall cues, and more.
This case ultimately led to the current state of affairs in which it is impermissible to use any standardized intelligence tests in California schools for any purpose on African-American students (Larry P.
Intelligence tests were administered in childhood at the ages seven, nine, 11 and 13 years, and again in adulthood at the age of 38.
The Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (UNIT; Bracken & McCallum, 1998) is an individually administered intelligence test designed to provide a fair assessment of individuals who may have experienced differing cultures, backgrounds, or linguistic abilities.
When learning a new iteration of an intelligence test, the examiner is required to utilize appropriate testing skills (AERA,APA, & NCME, 1999).
Keywords: Intelligence Test, Validation, Capacity, Gifted Children, Learning
One should not confuse underachieving on an intelligence test with the conventional use of the term underachievement in the field of gifted education.
An intelligence test score in early life is partly a record of what the environment has wrought on the brain and the rest of the body up to that time.
It seemed fitting to us, 40 years after the creation of The Dove Counterbalance Intelligence Test (1967) and its short form, The Chitling Test (1968), to develop a new instrument, The Chorizo Test, which addresses the continuing discriminatory practices against the new largest ethnic minority group, Hispanics.
If you can walk and chew gum at the same time (intelligence test), and you don't vote (civic test), be advised that some who can't pass either the intelligence test or the citizenship test (citizen) will be voting.

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