intelligent design


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intelligent design,

theory that some complex biological structures and other aspects of nature show evidence of having been designed by an intelligence. Such biological structures are said to have intricate components that are so highly interdependent and so essential to a particular function or process that the structures could not have developed through Darwinian evolutionevolution,
concept that embodies the belief that existing animals and plants developed by a process of gradual, continuous change from previously existing forms. This theory, also known as descent with modification, constitutes organic evolution.
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, and therefore must have been created or somehow guided in their development. Although intelligent design is distinguished from creationismcreationism
or creation science,
belief in the biblical account of the creation of the world as described in Genesis, a characteristic especially of fundamentalist Protestantism (see fundamentalism). Advocates of creationism have campaigned to have it taught in U.S.
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 by not relying on the biblical account of creation, it is compatible with a belief in God and is often explicitly linked with such a belief. Also, unlike creationists, its proponents do not challenge the idea that the earth is billions of years old and that life on earth has evolved to some degree. The theory does, however, necessarily reject standard science's reliance on explaining the natural world only through undirected natural causes, believing that any theory that relies on such causes alone is incapable of explaining how all biological structures and processes arose. Thus, despite claims by members of the intelligent-design movement that it is a scientific research program, the work of its adherents has been criticized as unscientific and speculative for inferring a pre-existing intelligence to explain the development of biological structures instead of attempting to develop adequate falsifiable mechanistic explanations. In addition, the theory has been attacked on the grounds that many aspects of nature fail to show any evidence of intelligent design, such as "junk" DNA (see nucleic acidnucleic acid,
any of a group of organic substances found in the chromosomes of living cells and viruses that play a central role in the storage and replication of hereditary information and in the expression of this information through protein synthesis.
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) and the vestigial webbed feet of the frigate bird (which never lands on water).

The idea that nature shows signs of having been designed by an intelligent being dates back at least to ancient Greece. The English theologian William PaleyPaley, William,
1743–1805, English theologian. Ordained in 1767, he lectured on moral philosophy at Christ's College, Cambridge. Made a prebendary of the cathedral church of Carlisle (1780), he became archdeacon of the diocese (1782), and chancellor (1785), the year he
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 gave the theory its classic formulation in his Natural Theology; or, Evidences of the Existence and Attributes of the Deity (1802), in which he argued that the eye and other biological features are perfectly suited for their purposes and that in this suitable design the hand of God can be discerned. The modern intelligent-design movement, however, has its origins in the 1980s with such works as The Mystery of Life's Origins (1984) by Charles Thaxton et al. and Evolution: A Theory in Crisis (1986) by Michael Denton. Micheal Behe's Darwin's Black Box (1996) is perhaps the best-known statement of the movement's critique of Darwin and its argument for a role for God or some other intelligence in the design of biological entities. Advocates of intelligent design have campaigned to have it taught in U.S. public schools alongside the Darwinian theory of evolution. A requirement by the Dover, Pa., area school board that students be told that intelligent design represents an alternative explanation for the origin of life was challenged in federal court in 2005 and ruled unconstitutional.

Bibliography

See R. T. Pennock, ed., Intelligent Design Creationism and Its Critics (2002).

References in periodicals archive ?
Meyer's book, which argues for intelligent design (ID) from evidence of the great Cambrian explosion, an eruption of biological information in Earth's ancient seas, 530 million years ago.
They effectively stopped intelligent design in its tracks, preventing copycat school districts from adopting Dover's ID policies.
This is a fascinating and very well organized book which provides the reader with a contextual understanding and historical appreciation of the nature of science and its importance to past, current, and future debates on scientific pursuits such as evolution and those which are considered to be pseudoscientific; namely intelligent design (creationism).
He said fundamentalists use intelligent design to teach creationism in order to get around separation of church and state legal restrictions in public school systems.
1 per cent of teachers agreed creationism or intelligent design should be given the same status as evolution.
Many of those against teaching Intelligent Design argue that there is no actual science behind Intelligent Design.
In a country where nearly half of American adults have consistently said they believe God created all living things in their present form sometime in the past 10,000 years, intelligent design sounded like a respectable alternative to the amoral, survival-of-the-fittest approach inherent in Darwinian evolution.
But if the stance of Ayala is the gravest threat to intelligent design that there is, then those of us who believe in it have little, if anything, to fear.
40 Days and 40 Nights: Darwin, Intelligent Design, God, OxyContin, and Other Oddities on Trial in Pennsylvania.
Sarkar finds intelligent design to be inaccurate, misleading and repugnant, and explains why in great detail.
The intelligent design (Lower case 'i' and lower case 'd') and the intelligent assembly of the components of biological origins are synonymous with supernatural genetic engineering and supernatural biotechnology.

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