internal colonialism


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internal colonialism

the incorporation of culturally distinct groups by a dominant group into one national identity, centralized political rule and a national economy. In many analyses the process has similarities with external COLONIALISM, whereby one state subordinates another. In contemporary literature on this subject there are two main areas where the concept is at the centre of analysis. One is in Latin American scholarship, where the term has been used to analyse the relationship between Europeanized social groups and indigenous groups (often called Indians) with different languages, beliefs and ways of life. Stavenhagen (1975) argues that internal colonialism emerged in Latin American countries with independence from Spain and Portugal in the 19th century and with the development of capitalist economies. Indian communities lost their lands, were made to work for strangers, were integrated into a monetary economy and incorporated into national political structures. This led to a form of ethnic stratification which, in Stavenhagen's analysis, operates alongside changing social class relationships.

In Europe and the US, the concept has been used to discuss ethnic and race relations and the emergence of nationalist movements within established nation states. The term gained currency with the civil rights and black power movements in the US in the 1960s, when comparisons were drawn between the position of black people in the US and the situation in Africa, where European colonialism was giving way to independent states. Hechter (1975) produced one of the most influential academic formulations of the concept, and, by using it to analyse national development in the UK, widened the debate. Hechter used aspects of WORLD SYSTEMS analysis to argue that internal colonialism involves the subordination of peripheral cultural groups by core dominant groups partly as a result of the uneven industrialization of territories. Those groups in the most advanced regions achieve dominance over those groups in the less advanced. Later this may lead to the emergence of nationalist movements in those regions, as was the case in some European countries and Canada in the late 1960s. See also NATIONALISM, CENTRE AND PERIPHERY, IMPERIALISM.

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They further said, 'Cognizant of our history which has been a catalogue of struggles for our basic rights and freedoms spanning the British colonial exploitation, subjection and subjugation to the present epoch of hegemonic feudal internal colonialism and servitude.
The monograph ends with a short discussion of some of Navjot's ongoing projects, including Soul Breadth Wind, a multi-channel video work that addresses the Indian state's longstanding extraction of mineral wealth from the Chhattisgarh region at the cost of marginalizing its indigenous populations in a situation akin to an internal colonialism, reminding the reader that the artist's tryst with the region and its dense entanglements as well as a desire to respond to them, continues to grow.
33) Other scholars argued that Black people were the victims of internal colonialism, and a powerful argument was forwarded in Harold Cruse's reference to "The American Negro: A Subject of Domestic Colonialism," in an essay titled "Revolutionary Nationalism and the Afro-American" that was first published in Studies on the Left (Volume 2, Number 3, 1962) and was republished in his collection of essays, Rebellion or Revolution?
If this does not happen, as has been the case with too many unidentified murderers and countless unpunished torturers who are clearly protected by an ideology, such as religion, a nation or the state, then we have to accept what the Kurds say: There is, in Turkey, a regime of internal colonialism.
State-organised migrants, sometimes called transmigrants, often receive preferential support from the state, gaining access to land at the expense of native (1) populations, who may perceive migration as internal colonialism.
18) Hechter's concept of internal colonialism contains two basic arguments.
The authors overall recuperate the Celtic peoples as active agents rather than passive victims of internal colonialism while also redressing their elision in academic discourse.
He looks at police brutality and internal colonialism in the 1930s, black mobilization around the 1939 local elections, the intersection of racial control and the war-time economy in which Detroit was at the center, Black Nationalism in Sherrill's Michigan Chronicle, forging a legacy for Garveyism and the UNIA in the post-war years, and the UNIA during the Civil Rights era.
Chapter 4, "'Been to the Nation, Lord, but I Couldn't Stay There': Cherokee Freedmen, Internal Colonialism, and the Racialization of Citizenship," configures the history of blues music as a relationship between southeastern US indigenous peoples and the African slaves who arrived in that space, then sets the Cherokee Freedmen controversy that began in 2007 in contrast with that history to discuss the concept of "internal colonialism.
In particular, the study seeks to fathom how sailing dinghy work accords with the social control interpretive model that has dominated our thinking about Torres Strait since Jeremy Beckett first applied the theory of internal colonialism to it in 1977.
The final major article is by John White and examines 'Histories of Indigenous-settler relations: Reflections on internal colonialism and the hybrid economy'.
In the 1960s, first among progressive activists and then scholars, this perspective became codified as Internal Colonialism Theory.

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