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A mental mechanism operating outside of and beyond conscious awareness by which certain external attributes, attitudes, or standards are taken within oneself.


the acceptance and incorporation of the standards or beliefs of other persons, or of society, by the individual. Internalization is a basic concept in FREUD's theory of personality development. The child's conscience (SUPEREGO) is formed by internalizing society's MORES, as represented by the parents’ personal values and standards. As suggested by this psychodynamic usage, the total acceptance of beliefs and values is usually implied when the concept is employed in a more general way. However, some expressed attitudes or behaviours may be based on social pressures, such as CONFORMITY, and involve compliance rather than internalization. See also SOCIALIZATION, OVERSOCIALIZED CONCEPTION OF MAN.



transfer inward from without. The concept of internalization entered psychology as a result of the work of the French sociological school (E. Durkheim and others), which linked internalization with the concept of socialization, the adoption of basic categories of individual consciousness from the sphere of social ideas. In the cultural-historical theory of the Soviet psychologist L. S. Vygotskii, the idea of internalization acquired fundamental importance for psychology. One of the basic premises of this theory is that any genuinely human form of the psyche initially evolves as an external, social form of human communication and only then, as a result of internalization, becomes a psychological process for an individual person. Stages of internalization have been traced in detail in works devoted to “intellectual actions.” In such works it has been demonstrated that internalization is not a simple transfer to action on the level of ideas (J. Piaget, Switzerland) but represents the formation of an internal structure of consciousness. Through its accompaniment by several other action changes, such as generalization or reduction, internalization leads to the formation of a new concrete psychological process.


Durkheim, E. “Sotsiologiia i teoriia poznaniia.” Novye idei v sotsiologii, collection 2. St. Petersburg, 1914.
Vygotskii, L. S. hbrannye psikhologicheskie issledovaniia. Moscow, 1956.
Vygotskii, L. G. Razvitie vysshikh psikhicheskikh funktsii. Moscow, 1960.
Gal’perin, P. Ia. “K ucheniiu ob interiorizatsii.” Voprosy psikhologii, 1966, NO. 6.


References in periodicals archive ?
Body image and body shapes ideals in magazines: Exposure, awareness, and internalization.
As a result of this, it was not possible to accomplish a simple causal relationship between these independent variables and the dependent variable (teachers' value internalization and commitment to implement National Junior Secondary School Home Economics curriculum (NJSSHEC).
Furthermore, self-deceptive positivity seems crucial to African Americans' ability to develop a positive and pluralistic self-definition in our society, as would be evidenced in the Internalization stage or status.
Research findings have consistently shown that, as the awareness and internalization of ideals for thinness increase, so do eating disorder symptoms, as measured by composite scales such as the Eating Attitudes Test (Griffiths et al.
Our study is the first to explore knowledge internalization in entrepreneurial families and its effect on PD.
Research findings support the effects that body image internalization has on restrictive eating (4,9).
It appears that the consistent repetition and internalization of distinctive, meaningful, and effortful religious practices cements membership (Thomas & Olson, 2010) and perhaps increases well-being--at least for those who internalize those practices and remain in the religious community (Iannacone, 1994).
The internalization of thinness norms may also influence eating attitudes in aesthetic sports (Galli and Reel, 2009; Sherman and Thompson, 2009).
ownership, location and internalization factors), an integrated framework that has been applied to the analysis of foreign direct investments (FDI) and the MNC's operations, including capability deployments (Dunning 1988, 1995, 2000; Singh and Kundu 2002; Erdener and Shapiro 2005).
One primary theory is internalization theory (Buckley & Casson, 1976; Casson, 2013; Casson & Wadeson, 2012; Dunning, 1988; Ellram, Tate & Petersen, 2013).
Bivariate correlations indicated that BD was significantly and positively correlated with internalization and ABRS in Asian and Caucasian males.