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A mental mechanism operating outside of and beyond conscious awareness by which certain external attributes, attitudes, or standards are taken within oneself.


the acceptance and incorporation of the standards or beliefs of other persons, or of society, by the individual. Internalization is a basic concept in FREUD's theory of personality development. The child's conscience (SUPEREGO) is formed by internalizing society's MORES, as represented by the parents’ personal values and standards. As suggested by this psychodynamic usage, the total acceptance of beliefs and values is usually implied when the concept is employed in a more general way. However, some expressed attitudes or behaviours may be based on social pressures, such as CONFORMITY, and involve compliance rather than internalization. See also SOCIALIZATION, OVERSOCIALIZED CONCEPTION OF MAN.



transfer inward from without. The concept of internalization entered psychology as a result of the work of the French sociological school (E. Durkheim and others), which linked internalization with the concept of socialization, the adoption of basic categories of individual consciousness from the sphere of social ideas. In the cultural-historical theory of the Soviet psychologist L. S. Vygotskii, the idea of internalization acquired fundamental importance for psychology. One of the basic premises of this theory is that any genuinely human form of the psyche initially evolves as an external, social form of human communication and only then, as a result of internalization, becomes a psychological process for an individual person. Stages of internalization have been traced in detail in works devoted to “intellectual actions.” In such works it has been demonstrated that internalization is not a simple transfer to action on the level of ideas (J. Piaget, Switzerland) but represents the formation of an internal structure of consciousness. Through its accompaniment by several other action changes, such as generalization or reduction, internalization leads to the formation of a new concrete psychological process.


Durkheim, E. “Sotsiologiia i teoriia poznaniia.” Novye idei v sotsiologii, collection 2. St. Petersburg, 1914.
Vygotskii, L. S. hbrannye psikhologicheskie issledovaniia. Moscow, 1956.
Vygotskii, L. G. Razvitie vysshikh psikhicheskikh funktsii. Moscow, 1960.
Gal’perin, P. Ia. “K ucheniiu ob interiorizatsii.” Voprosy psikhologii, 1966, NO. 6.


References in periodicals archive ?
org/publication/uer/InternalizedRacism) United To End Racism , the reason internalized racism pervades the lives of African-Americans is because they refuse to share their experiences of becoming victims of racism with each other.
Demographic variables, alcohol consumption-related characteristics and level of internalized stigma, insight, self-esteem, and depression were analyzed using frequency and descriptive statistical analysis.
In one of the few studies examining perceived racism in Latina/o undergraduates, Hipolito-Delgado (2010) found a positive relationship between perceived racism and internalized racism in 500 Latina/o undergraduates.
A generalized self-report instrument, this scale was designed to measure the extent to which internalized stigma affect the mental health of stigmatized minorities through a 4-point Likert scale (Mak & Cheung, 2010).
The mean score of Internalized Stigma measured with Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Inventory (ISMI) was high in Women in comparison to Men at significance level of .
to establish links between specific internalized role examples and the MOHO-based concepts related to occupation.
The online survey combined five distinct measures: (a) a demographic questionnaire, (b) the HIV Risk Behaviors Questionnaire, (c) the Internalized Homonegativity Inventory (IHNI; Mayfield, 2001), (d) the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES; Rosenberg, 1965), and (e) the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D; Radloff, 1977).
Third, we expect internalized stigma to mediate the relationship between perceived discrimination and well-being among PWMI.
parental pressure, parental support, influence of parental pressure), and internalized stereotyping variables (i.
Internalized homophobia was measured using an eleven-item scale which included questions on homosexuality and its effect on level of comfort and how it affects relationship with friends and family members (the scale adequately captured internalized homophobia; Cronbach's [alpha] = 0.
An extensive review of literature found no published articles focusing on internalized stigma among PLHA in Bangladesh.
According to a new study by the Bradley Hasbro Children's Research Center, Hispanic siblings show more symptoms of having internalized their siblings' disorders than children of other races do.