The basic principle of duobinary coder is adding an intersymbol interference
(ISI) to the transmitted signal in a controlled manner and compensating its effect at the receiver.
Tachyon and Tachyon-100G materials use spread glass and reduced profile VLP-2 copper (very low profile copper with 2 um Rz surface roughness copper foil) to mitigate PCB induced differential skew, improve signal rise times, and reduce jitter and intersymbol interference
Use one of three dual-Dirac models to measure and separate noise into total (Tn), random (Rn) and deterministic (Dn) components, and further decompose Dn into Intersymbol Interference
Noise (ISIn) and Periodic Noise (Pn).
More than ever, signal integrity issues due to crosstalk and channel effects such as intersymbol interference
lead to closed eyes and jitter.
This is the definition of intersymbol interference
and will contribute to collapse of the eye.
His topics include deterministic and random signal analysis, information theory and channel coding, modulation and demodulation, intersymbol interference
and equalization, and fading channels.
The performance of conventional CDMA systems  is limited by multiple access interference (MAI), as well as intersymbol interference
Challenges consist of impairments related to the propagation of the signals themselves, such as insertion loss and intersymbol interference
, that are caused by the limited bandwidth and real impedance of the cable itself, plus degradations due to interfering effects, such as echo, near-end crosstalk and far-end crosstalk.
When you consider all the different effects lumped under the term signal integrity, it seems like there is a neverending list of problems to keep track of: ground bounce, ringing, crosstalk, switching noise, rail collapse, delta I noise, capacitive coupling, reflections, discontinuities, impedance miss matches, lossy lines, terminations, branches, deterministic jitter, stubs, decoupling capacitors, loop inductance, via inductance, controlled impedance, time delay, skin depth, return current, layer transitions, differential impedance, collapse of the eye, common signal termination, differential signal termination, overshoot, intersymbol interference
, ring back, etc.
In addition, channel equalization to combat intersymbol interference
is essentially eliminated (it becomes a trivial one-tap equalizer).
As the output of the pulse shaping filter is distorted, the matched filter in the receiver is no longer matched to the transmitted signal, and intersymbol interference
(ISI) is introduced.
To help unclog pathways for the clearer conveyance of information, this book offers in-depth discussion of the significant contributions and future adaptability of channel equalization and a set of approaches for solving the problem of intersymbol interference