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(1) Teaching the details of a subject. With regard to software, training provides instruction for each command and function in an application. Contrast with education.

(2) In communications, the process by which two modems determine the correct protocols and transmission speeds to use.

(3) In voice recognition systems, the recording of the user's voice in order to provide samples and patterns for recognizing that voice.



in fruit growing and ornamental horticulture, imparting a certain shape to the crowns of trees. The crowns of fruit trees and shrubs are made light-permeable, sturdy, and compact to ensure high yields and convenience in managing, cultivation, and harvesting (by mechanized means). Crown shapes are classified as high-trunk (taller than 150 cm), average trunk (70–100 cm), low-trunk (50–60 cm), shrub (shorter than 40 cm), and trunkless (berry bushes and, sometimes, plum, cherry, and certain spreading forms). Depending on the arrangement of the branches, the crowns may be free-growing (improved-natural) or artificial.

Most common in fruit-growing is the free-growing crown, in the formation of which the natural growth of the tree or shrub is only slightly disrupted. Free-growing crowns include the whorled-layered crown whose principal skeletal branches are arranged in whorls of five in two or three layers, and the thinned-layered crown whose skeletal branches are arranged in layers of three, with solitary branches between them. Artificial crown shapes are used in topiary work and in ornamental horticulture. In beautifying city streets trees are usually trained to have a high trunk (up to 2 m) and a spherical crown. In parks trees are often trained in the form of geometric shapes, vases, and animals. Training is usually begun in plant nurseries and completed at the permanent planting site. The principal method of tree training is pruning.




References in periodicals archive ?
exercise, repetition training, and interval training have all been used
Interval training is a genuine challenge, especially for those accustomed to leisurely strolling on a treadmill.
In studies with an appropriate steady-state control group, interval training has usually produced a larger increase in V[O.
The aerobic training intervention consisted of interval training, comprising four bouts of 4 min work periods dribbling a soccer ball around a specially designed track (Hoff et al.
Swim twice per week for distance and later add interval training.
Kilo-Actif's success is largely based on the adoption of an interval training program," added Valerie Guilbault, an EPIC Centre kinesiologist who oversaw the training of the participants.
1) The study compared anaerobic interval training with moderate-intensity continuous training on aerobic capacity in these divers.
Implementation of interval training has shown to allow lower limb exercise to be sustained at a high intensity which otherwise would not be tolerable.
And as with high-intensity interval training and heavy-load resistance training, there is a chronic benefit to moderate-intensity training as well: One study found the rise in triglycerides after a high-fat meal was 43% lower in endurance-trained men than in untrained men.
Interval training can be done on any machine on which you can adjust the resistance, such as a treadmill or elliptical trainer,
Claire, who competed in the first Strictly Come Dancing in 2004, embarked on a strict SlimFast diet, also hitting the gym to do high intensity interval training, boxing and hot yoga.
3 Circuit training, high intensity interval training (HIIT) or slow sessions with weights are all great ways to get the most out of a shorter workout.