intuitionism


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intuitionism

Intuitionism

 

the idealist movement in philosophy that considers intuition to be the sole reliable means of cognition. Although the intuitionist tendency is characteristic of many philosophers and philosophical trends of the past, intuitionism as a definite movement arose at the turn of the century. It is, in particular, a type of reaction to the spread of a rationalistic way of thought, which is based on the mechanistic and positivistic conception of scientific knowledge and on the limitation of experience exclusively to the sphere of sense perception. As a variety of irrationalism, intuitionism is opposed to the philosophy of dialectical materialism. Two forms of intuitionism can be distinguished. For the first, anti-intellectual form, the opposition of intuition and intellect is characteristic, as in H. Bergson (France) and the philosophy of life as a whole. The second form tries to unite intuition and intellect, as in the Russian philosophers N. O. Losskii, S. L. Frank, and E. N. Trubetskoi; the French neo-Thomists E. Gilson and J. Maritain; and, in part, E. Husserl and the phenomenological school—M. Scheler, N. Hartmann (Germany), and other philosophers.

Bergson contrasts intuition to discursive, logical thinking or logical knowledge. He interprets intuition as the immediate merging of subject and object, the overcoming of the opposition between them. In the biological versions of the philosophy of life (for example, in the German philosoher L. Klages) intuition verges on instinct, giving direct knowledge of an object without the aid of consciousness.

Representatives of the second tendency of intuitionism strive to go beyond the bounds of immediate sense experience and propose that philosophy base itself on a special kind of experience—mental (particularly “religious”) experience. Dialectical materialism, while criticizing the exaggerated role that intuitionism assigns to intuition in cognition, looks upon intuition as an organic moment in the cognitive process, acting in unison with discursive thinking.

References in periodicals archive ?
Hurka suggests Audi can avoid these difficulties by basing his intuitionism on Thomism rather than Kantianism.
Even those relatively few anthropologists and philosophers who are like-minded followers of cognitivism, intuitionism, romanticism and pluralism will, I think, be eager to have Wilson say a bit more in defense of his heresies.
Stratton-Lake, "Introduction" in Ethical Intuitionism and Audi, The Good in the Right, pp.
With these views on interpretation and development Jowett had a significant influence upon the work of the British Idealists (who, in turn, distanced themselves from the orthodox intuitionism of the common-sense approach).
Khawaya's focus on metaethical foundationalism contains sections on Aristotle, Kant, Rawls, Nozick, plus intuitionism, moral epistemology, and particularly on the question 'what's at the basis of our moral considerations?
Chapter 4 concerns McCosh's "scientific intuitionism.
Ethical Intuitionism is the view that intuition can provide non-inferential, prima facie justification for ethical beliefs.
He explains that although Maritain admired Henri Bergson's intuitionism, Maritain eventually deemed Bergson's notion of 'concept' incompatible with the Catholic faith he embraced in 1906.
strongly criticizes the "sensualistic" intuitionism of Kant as well as the "intellectualistic" intuitionism which S.
More broadly, there has been a resurgence of interest in ethical intuitionism, a view that (if correct) could undermine a pure virtue ethics.
Intuitionism purports to provide a foundational basis for morality/ethics.
Three of these articles compare Peirce's philosophy directly to 20th century schools of mathematical thought, comparing and contrasting Peirce to structuralism, intuitionism, and realism.