intuitionism


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intuitionism

Intuitionism

 

the idealist movement in philosophy that considers intuition to be the sole reliable means of cognition. Although the intuitionist tendency is characteristic of many philosophers and philosophical trends of the past, intuitionism as a definite movement arose at the turn of the century. It is, in particular, a type of reaction to the spread of a rationalistic way of thought, which is based on the mechanistic and positivistic conception of scientific knowledge and on the limitation of experience exclusively to the sphere of sense perception. As a variety of irrationalism, intuitionism is opposed to the philosophy of dialectical materialism. Two forms of intuitionism can be distinguished. For the first, anti-intellectual form, the opposition of intuition and intellect is characteristic, as in H. Bergson (France) and the philosophy of life as a whole. The second form tries to unite intuition and intellect, as in the Russian philosophers N. O. Losskii, S. L. Frank, and E. N. Trubetskoi; the French neo-Thomists E. Gilson and J. Maritain; and, in part, E. Husserl and the phenomenological school—M. Scheler, N. Hartmann (Germany), and other philosophers.

Bergson contrasts intuition to discursive, logical thinking or logical knowledge. He interprets intuition as the immediate merging of subject and object, the overcoming of the opposition between them. In the biological versions of the philosophy of life (for example, in the German philosoher L. Klages) intuition verges on instinct, giving direct knowledge of an object without the aid of consciousness.

Representatives of the second tendency of intuitionism strive to go beyond the bounds of immediate sense experience and propose that philosophy base itself on a special kind of experience—mental (particularly “religious”) experience. Dialectical materialism, while criticizing the exaggerated role that intuitionism assigns to intuition in cognition, looks upon intuition as an organic moment in the cognitive process, acting in unison with discursive thinking.

References in periodicals archive ?
73) Although the appeal to an immediate consciousness of moral obligation looks suspiciously like a relapse into ethical intuitionism, Kant clearly dismisses such an interpretation.
If one is to evaluate the philosophical foundation of linguistics by drawing an analogy with the philosophical foundation for mathematics, one must conclude that it is Mathematical Intuitionism, rather than Mathematical Platonism, as Katz wrongly proposes, with which the philosopher of language should identify.
In order to reflect the intuitionism and fuzziness of IvIFS, we will introduce two factors [[PSI].
Probably Smith's clearest example of intuitionism is Greenawalt's discussion of Lee v.
On the one hand, Sir Michael Dummett (19252011), an advocate for intuitionism and a staunch Roman Catholic, rejected classical logic for purely philosophical reasons.
Intuitionism refers to the judicial tendency to rely on intuition
Brouwer's intuitionism is related to conceptualism, which holds that abstract entities exist only insofar as they are constructed by the human mind.
Presumably, what the perceptualist needs is a solution to the standard problems with intuitionism, which works because the relevant state of seeming is identical with a motivating or imperatival attitude.
Although intuitionism is the ideology, Kirchheimer clearly shows that this does not at all mean the "liberty of the judiciary," even though, as Baratta writes, (45) this constituted one of the main tools with which the fundamental principles of legal positivism had been gradually destroyed during the Weimar period.
From the outset, Kaspar's aim is to show that intuitionism can reply to a serious challenge: namely, that it lacks explanatory power.
Argues that, "far from renouncing science for a universal intuitionism, Thoreau, Douglass, and Whitman draw upon mid-century biological discourses to produce accounts of intuition which relinquish its disembodied and universalizing function, exploring instead the possibility that intuitive perception yields insights as divergent as the bodies and brains from which they spring"; Chapter 4, "Is This Then a Touch?
Audi's contributions bracket the other essays, introducing new intuitionism and concluding with reflections on future lines of thought.