intuitionism

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intuitionism

Intuitionism

 

the idealist movement in philosophy that considers intuition to be the sole reliable means of cognition. Although the intuitionist tendency is characteristic of many philosophers and philosophical trends of the past, intuitionism as a definite movement arose at the turn of the century. It is, in particular, a type of reaction to the spread of a rationalistic way of thought, which is based on the mechanistic and positivistic conception of scientific knowledge and on the limitation of experience exclusively to the sphere of sense perception. As a variety of irrationalism, intuitionism is opposed to the philosophy of dialectical materialism. Two forms of intuitionism can be distinguished. For the first, anti-intellectual form, the opposition of intuition and intellect is characteristic, as in H. Bergson (France) and the philosophy of life as a whole. The second form tries to unite intuition and intellect, as in the Russian philosophers N. O. Losskii, S. L. Frank, and E. N. Trubetskoi; the French neo-Thomists E. Gilson and J. Maritain; and, in part, E. Husserl and the phenomenological school—M. Scheler, N. Hartmann (Germany), and other philosophers.

Bergson contrasts intuition to discursive, logical thinking or logical knowledge. He interprets intuition as the immediate merging of subject and object, the overcoming of the opposition between them. In the biological versions of the philosophy of life (for example, in the German philosoher L. Klages) intuition verges on instinct, giving direct knowledge of an object without the aid of consciousness.

Representatives of the second tendency of intuitionism strive to go beyond the bounds of immediate sense experience and propose that philosophy base itself on a special kind of experience—mental (particularly “religious”) experience. Dialectical materialism, while criticizing the exaggerated role that intuitionism assigns to intuition in cognition, looks upon intuition as an organic moment in the cognitive process, acting in unison with discursive thinking.

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Lila Mae, la protagonista de The intuitionist, fue tambien inicialmente hombre.
Grounded in evolutionary psychology, the social intuitionist model of morality--and the moral foundations theory that follows from it--asserts that moral foundations are both innate and shaped by culture (Haidt, 2001, 2013).
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On the hand, Kaspar pitches the book to students: it is 'something of an introduction to the intuitionist outlook' (7); he writes in an admirably accessible style; he concludes each chapter with a summary of the main points; he refrains from interacting with minor figures in the literature; and he generally opts for breadth rather than depth.
6), focused on disputes between an intuitionist and a classical logician about whether instances of LEM should be counted as logical truths.
The same identification misguides logicians to the false problem of limiting and suspending the classical principles in the intuitionist restrictive logics as well as in the many-valued logics.
15) Furthermore, he takes an intuitionist approach to mathematics, which he develops in the 1830S through his theory of algebra as "the science of pure time" and confirms through his reading of Immanuel Kant's Critique of Pure Reason.
Vertical Bearings: Dashiell Hammett's Maltese Falcon and Colson Whitehead's The Intuitionist.
In the social intuitionist perspective proposed by Haidt (2001), moral decisions are often made through effortless and intuitive processes with the reasoning coming after the decision has been made.