Thyroglobulin

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thyroglobulin

[¦thī·rō′gläb·yə·lən]
(biochemistry)
An iodinated protein found as the storage form of the iodinated hormones in the thyroid follicular lumen and epithelial cells.

Thyroglobulin

 

a glycoprotein produced by the follicles of the thyroid gland; a direct precursor of the thyroid hormones. The carbohydrate and protein constituents of thyroglobulin are synthesized in the ribosomes of the thyroid epithelium. Subsequent iodination of the residues of the amino acid tyrosine, which are part of the thyroglobulin molecule, results in the formation of thyroxine and triiodothyronine. These are released into the blood after splitting off from thyroglobulin under the influence of the proteolytic enzymes of the thyroid gland. The cells’ ability to iodinate thyroglobulin arises after the appearance of the endoplasmic reticulum in the gland, the formation of follicles, and the secretion of thyrotropin by the hypophysis.