On the brink of permanently liberating its kidnapped cargo and leaving behind an ionized atom
short one electron, the laser's throbbing electric field cleanly reverses direction.
7] The ionized atom
remains in excited state about 10 to 14 seconds.
Gamma-ray bursts are the ideal tools to study the transition from a dark universe filled with neutral hydrogen atoms to a shining cosmos containing an abundance of ionized atoms
, says Loeb.
Using a satellite called IMAGE (Imager for Magnetopause-to-Aurora Global Exploration), researchers for the first time obtained images of the sun pumping material into its plasma sheet, which is made of highly ionized atoms
and pierces Earth's magnetic field.
In turn, that outsurge of negative particles pulled along, by electrostatic attraction, the positively charged ionized atoms
that had been created by the cascade of electron liberation.
Rather, X rays from the sun induce the Venusian emissions when they bombard the planet's upper atmosphere and are absorbed by ionized atoms
Therefore, the ionized atoms
do not emit X rays when they fall onto the disk of matter circling the central black hole.
Recent SOHO measurements reveal that ionized atoms
in some parts of the corona reach velocities greater than 200 kilometers per second.
Both the ionized atoms
and the electrons would then impart a charge to lunar dust particles.
If particular ionized atoms
emit the X-rays, they will produce a telltale set of peaks and valleys in the spectrum recorded by DXS.
Laboratory experiments had previously demonstrated that energetic radiation strips electrons from atoms in a gas, permitting these ionized atoms
to conduct electricity.
The supernova's shock wave proved energetic enough to strip five of eight electrons from atomic oxygen gas and induced these ionized atoms
to emit the ultraviolet light detected by HUT, reports Arthur F.