islets of Langerhans

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islets of Langerhans:

see pancreaspancreas
, glandular organ that secretes digestive enzymes and hormones. In humans, the pancreas is a yellowish organ about 7 in. (17.8 cm) long and 1.5 in. (3.8 cm) wide. It lies beneath the stomach and is connected to the small intestine at the duodenum (see digestive system).
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Islets of Langerhans


the groups of cells in the pancreas of man and vertebrates (except cyclostomes) that form the endocrine part of the organ, secreting the hormones insulin and glucagon into the blood.

The islets of Langerhans are named for the German scientist P. Langerhans, who described them in 1869. In 1901, the Russian scientist L. V. Sobolev proved their endocrine function and established the occurrence of changes in the islets with diabetes mellitus. The dimensions of the islets of Langerhans are 50 to 500 microns, and there are between ten and 20 islets per mg of gland tissue. The islets do not communicate with the gland’s effluent ducts.

The islets of Langerhans develop from tubular processes of the anterior gut and, depending on the type of animal, consist of cells of several types. All animals have α cells and β cells. The granules of α cells are considered to be a form of glucagon deposit; the β cells, of insulin. C cells and D cells (the former have been found in the islets of Langerhans of guinea pigs; the latter, in man and dogs), which lack granules, are converted to α cells and β cells. In all, the tissue of the islets of Langerhans makes up 0.9 to 3.6 percent of the mass of the pancreas in children and 0.9 to 2.7 percent in adults.


References in periodicals archive ?
This new patent, entitled Methods of Culturing and Encapsulating Pancreatic Islet Cells, covers processes to effectively culture and transplant functional and viable islet cells, the major insulin-secreting cells, into people with insulin-dependent (type 1) diabetes mellitus.
Sections of pancreas tissue showed an islet cell tumor and surrounding adjacent IPMH.
Researchers believe that transplanting islet cells to provide the needed insulin might be a cure for Type 1 diabetes.
A review of the Islet Cell Carcinoma (Insulinoma) products under development by companies and universities/research institutes based on information derived from company and industry-specific sources.
This decision is complicated by the time-dependent decrease in cadaveric islet cell function, said James Markmann, M.
Q: Are researchers continuing to improve the islet cell process?
Other developing therapies for type 1 diabetes either target the autoimmune condition or look to replace the destroyed islet cells, but not both together.
There's an unfortunate competition between whole organ transplants and islet cell transplants," said Dr.
Testing to date has shown that the success of the transplant is dramatically improved by the addition of AAGP[TM] to the transplanted islet cells.
By default, the survival and function of the islet cells will always be worse in any organ other than the pancreas.
Pancreatic islet cell transplantation and particularly stem cell-based therapies have a huge potential to restore glucose control in patients with diabetes, without risk of serious hypoglycemic adverse effects associated with insulin therapy, and safety issues of other anti-diabetes treatments.