isoniazid


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Related to isoniazid: Pyrazinamide

isoniazid

(ī'sōnī`əzĭd), drug used to treat tuberculosistuberculosis
(TB), contagious, wasting disease caused by any of several mycobacteria. The most common form of the disease is tuberculosis of the lungs (pulmonary consumption, or phthisis), but the intestines, bones and joints, the skin, and the genitourinary, lymphatic, and
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. Also known as isonicotinic acid hydrazide, isoniazid is the most effective antituberculosis drug currently available. The drug inhibits or kills the tubercle bacilli that cause the disease. It is usually given together with some other antituberculosis drug such as streptomycinstreptomycin
, antibiotic produced by soil bacteria of the genus Streptomyces and active against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria (see Gram's stain), including species resistant to other antibiotics, e.g.
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 or para-aminosalicylic acid to prevent emergence of drug resistant organisms (see drug resistancedrug resistance,
condition in which infecting bacteria can resist the destructive effects of drugs such as antibiotics and sulfa drugs. Drug resistance has become a serious public health problem, since many disease-causing bacteria are no longer susceptible to previously
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). To prevent development of tuberculosis in individuals who have a positive reaction to a tuberculin skin test, isoniazid is given alone. Side effects are seen only with very high doses.

isoniazid

[‚ī·sə′nī·ə·zəd]
(pharmacology)
C6H7N3O A drug used as a tuberculostatic. Also known as isonicotinic acid hydrazide.
References in periodicals archive ?
Rapid detection of rifampicin and isoniazid resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis by the direct thin-layer agar method.
Lack of efficacy of primary isoniazid (INH) prophylaxis in reducing tuberculosis (TB) free survival in HIV-infected (HIV+) African children.
In additional findings, compared with the 9H isoniazid-only regimen, the 3HP rifapentine plus isoniazid regimen was associated with a higher treatment completion rate (82% vs.
Isoniazid for preventing tuberculosis in non-HIV infected persons.
A 6- to 9-month regimen (2 months of isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol, followed by 4 to 7 months of isoniazid and rifampin) is recommended as initial therapy for all forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis unless the organisms are known or suspected to be resistant to the first-line drugs (8).
Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) significantly reduces the risk of TB disease in people living with HIV, but is not widely used.
Isoniazid is a mechanism-based inhibitor of cytochrome P450 1A2, 2A6, 2C19 and 3A4 isoforms in human liver microsomes.
tuberculosis include isoniazid (INH), rifampicin (RMP), ethambutol (EMB), streptomycin (SM) and pyrazinamide (PZA) (Snider and La Mont-agne, 1994).
tuberculosis growing in the laboratory, one of the seven resulting structures halted microbial growth nearly as well as does isoniazid, one of the first-line tuberculosis drugs.
In its annual report, the Health Protection Agency (HPA) highlighted the measures it had taken to combat a TB strain which is resistant to the antibiotic drug isoniazid.
However, if the smear is positive, the infant should receive isoniazid for 6 months and be immunized with BCG after stopping isoniazid.