isoniazid


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Related to isoniazid: Pyrazinamide

isoniazid

(ī'sōnī`əzĭd), drug used to treat tuberculosistuberculosis
(TB), contagious, wasting disease caused by any of several mycobacteria. The most common form of the disease is tuberculosis of the lungs (pulmonary consumption, or phthisis), but the intestines, bones and joints, the skin, and the genitourinary, lymphatic, and
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. Also known as isonicotinic acid hydrazide, isoniazid is the most effective antituberculosis drug currently available. The drug inhibits or kills the tubercle bacilli that cause the disease. It is usually given together with some other antituberculosis drug such as streptomycinstreptomycin
, antibiotic produced by soil bacteria of the genus Streptomyces and active against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria (see Gram's stain), including species resistant to other antibiotics, e.g.
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 or para-aminosalicylic acid to prevent emergence of drug resistant organisms (see drug resistancedrug resistance,
condition in which infecting bacteria can resist the destructive effects of drugs such as antibiotics and sulfa drugs. Drug resistance has become a serious public health problem, since many disease-causing bacteria are no longer susceptible to previously
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). To prevent development of tuberculosis in individuals who have a positive reaction to a tuberculin skin test, isoniazid is given alone. Side effects are seen only with very high doses.

isoniazid

[‚ī·sə′nī·ə·zəd]
(pharmacology)
C6H7N3O A drug used as a tuberculostatic. Also known as isonicotinic acid hydrazide.
References in periodicals archive ?
5 However, this phenomenon does not meet the definition of MDR TB where simultaneous resistance to isoniazid and rifampicin in an isolate is desired.
Over the time mycobacterium TB strains have developed resistance to almost all antibiotics, however, resistant frequency to isoniazid is higher than other drugs.
tuberculosis isoniazid resistance, decreased 50% catalaseperoxidase activity of KatG wt [17,18] Meanwhile, the mutant KatG (Asn238Ser) decreased the catalytic efficiency as 41% for catalase and 52% for peroxidase respectively [11] Wei (2003) reported that the change of catalase-peroxidase activity of the variants katG directly correlated with activity activates INH [17] To know the basis of the change in catalase-peroxidase activity in KatG L19, it was created the structure modeling of the mutant protein.
Approximately half (54%) of the infected persons opted for 12 weekly doses of isoniazid and rifapentine treatment, which require directly observed therapy.
tuberculosis infection with isoniazid and rifampicin drug susceptibility testing results documented in 173 (91.
8) Total 21 8 2 31 (100) Table 5: Drug resistance by indirect proportion method (IPM) of 6 isolates Sample Isoniazid Rifampicin Ethambutol Strepomycin % (n) % (n) % (n) % (n) Biopsy 1 -- -- 1 tissue Total 16.
Isoniazid plus antiretroviral therapy to prevent tuberculosis: A randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
In the present study maximum number of male patients showed resistance to Isoniazid (7) and among women it was towards Streptomycin.
001) in group B confirming isoniazid as hepatotoxic drug; the values of the test came down significantly by EEP in groups C D and E showing its hepatoprotec- tive effect (Table 1).
For the in vitro growth analyses of the 2 strains, we inoculated broth cultures and measured growth at an optical density of 600 nm, characterized the dominant strain by using MIRU-VNTR, and quantified colony-forming units on agar plates in the presence and absence of isoniazid.
9 percent of ordinary, actively replicating TB bacteria within three weeks, and in combination with isoniazid or rifampin, could kill 100 percent within that period.