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city (1990 pop. 13,553), seat of Walker co., NW central Ala.; inc. 1889. Jasper is a trade and processing center in a coal and timber area. There is agriculture and the manufacture of sporting goods and furniture, as well as bottling and poultry processing.


opaque, impure cryptocrystalline quartzquartz,
one of the commonest of all rock-forming minerals and one of the most important constituents of the earth's crust. Chemically, it is silicon dioxide, SiO2.
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, usually red, but also yellow, green, and grayish blue. It is used as a gem. Ribbon jasper has the colors in stripes.



a compact, fine-grained rock, composed mainly of quartz, chalcedony, and colored impurities of other minerals, such as hematite, goethite, manganese hydroxides, chlorite, and actinolite. Jasper is one of the most common and most beautiful gems.

On the basis of composition, jaspers are subdivided into essentially quartz jaspers proper, quartz-chalcedonic jasperoids, and feldspar-quartz jasper-like rocks. They are characterized by good hardness (5.5–7.0 on Mohs’ scale), strength, a large variety of colors, and the capacity to acquire a high polish. Various shades of red, green, yellow, and gray predominate; red-brown, black, and white are encountered less frequently. Jaspers are opaque and exhibit a conchoidal fracture. On the basis of texture, they are subdivided into solid, monocolored jasper, striped jasper, multicolored jasper, with colored veins and spots, and spheroidal, or “penny,” jasper. Landscape jasper, a type of multicolored jasper, is especially valuable. Jaspers are deposited in the form of layers, lenses, and strata measuring tens or hundreds of meters in thickness.

Jaspers are polygenous formations. Jasper proper is most often metamorphosed siliceous radiolarian ooze and argillaceous siliceous deposits genetically linked to greenstone effusive rocks and tuffs of spilite-keratophyre formations (for example, the Southern Urals deposits at Kalkan and the Orsk group with Mount Polkovnik, composed of landscape jasper). Jasper-like hornblendes and other jasper-like rocks were formed in the course of contact metamorphosis or silicification of various shales and effusive rocks (for example, the Revnevskoe and Gol’tsovoe deposits and the Leninogorsk group in the Rudnyi Altai). Outside the USSR, jasper deposits are found in the USA, India, and Venezuela.

Jasper has long been used for making fine objects, such as cylindrical seals, jewelry, and amulets, and Florentine mosaics and other interior decorations, such as vases, fireplaces, and columns. It is currently used in fine crafts, jewelry, and the manufacture of mortars, knife-edge bearings, and step bearings.


Kievlenko, E. la., and N. N. Senkevich. Geologiia meslorozhdenii podelochnykh kamnei. Moscow, 1976.



A dense, opaque to slightly translucent cryptocrystalline quartz containing iron oxide impurities; characteristically red. Also known as jasperite; jasperoid; jaspis.


1. an opaque impure microcrystalline form of quartz, red, yellow, brown, or dark green in colour, used as a gemstone and for ornamental decoration
2. a dense hard stoneware, invented in 1775 by Wedgwood, capable of being stained throughout its substance with metallic oxides and used as background for applied classical decoration


The part of the Tomcat servlet container that converts JSPs to servlets. See Tomcat.
References in periodicals archive ?
Elizabeth Upton, Baroness Templetown (1746/47-1823) specialised in detailed cut paper work, which adapted well to Wedgwood's jasperware with white bas relief scenes on coloured backgrounds.
The benefits of the pate-sur-pate technique and of Jasperware join in a first step.
Wedgwood is primarily known for two of its many types of production, both of these being manufactured to this day: Jasperware and bone china.
The collection contains examples of Josiah Wedgwood's attempts to replicate the Portland Vase, a Roman artefact which the ceramics pioneer dedicated four years to reproducing in jasperware.
Sandra Penketh, head of the Lady Lever, said: "These collections are amazing and of international status - particularly the Wedgwood jasperware, Victorian paintings and English 18th-century furniture.
The factory also made porcelain jugs imitating the Wedgwood jasperware, as did other factories in Staffordshire.
His most famous creation is Jasperware, the immediately recognizable, blue unglazed ware characterized by white cameo figures.
Empire Theatre, Lime Street, Liverpool, 0844 871 3017 - Wed, 27 Sep Wedgwood Wares Join Alyson Pollard, Senior Curator of Art Galleries, for a closer look at the best collection of Wedgwood jasperware in the world.
Black Basaltes and Jasperware (neo-classical style), were other early triumphs.
In 1793, the Wedgwood factory produced a fine black and white jasperware chess set designed by the sculptor John Flaxman.
The miniature version was made in about 1880 and was modelled as a Palladian temple with pillars and arches made from brass and embellished with Wedgwood blue Jasperware urns and panels decorated with classical scenes.