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see IslamIslam
, [Arab.,=submission to God], world religion founded by the Prophet Muhammad. Founded in the 7th cent., Islam is the youngest of the three monotheistic world religions (with Judaism and Christianity). An adherent to Islam is a Muslim [Arab.,=one who submits].
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(religion, spiritualism, and occult)

Jihad means "holy war." But how that word is interpreted is a matter of some debate, probably because Muhammad himself used the term in different ways. Sometimes he used jihad to describe the cultural and political spread of Islam. Sometimes he used it to refer to the spiritual war against evil both in society and in the human soul.

Following are a few passages from the Qur'an relating to jihad:

Not equal are those believers who sit (at home) and receive no hurt, and those who strive and fight in the cause of God with their goods and their persons. God hath granted a grade higher to those who strive and fight. (4:95)

Fight in the cause of God those who fight you, but do not transgress limits; for God loveth not transgressors. (2:190)

And fight them on until there is no more tumult or oppression, and there prevail justice and faith in God; but if they cease, let there be no hostility to those who practice oppression. (2:193)

And if any strive (with might and main), they do so for their own souls; for Allah is free of all needs from all creation. (29:6)

Let there be no compulsion in religion: Truth stands out clear from Error: whoever rejects evil and believes in Allah hath grasped the most trustworthy hand-hold, that never breaks. And Allah heareth and knoweth all things. (2:256)



(Arabic, “holy war,” literally, “struggle” or “persevere”), one of the precepts of Islam, supported by the Koran (for example, sura 9, verse 29), according to which all Muslims able to do battle must carry out holy wars against unbelievers. The teachings developed by scholars of Muslim law state that the entire world is divided into a “land of Islam” (or “region of faith”) and a “war territory” (countries inhabited by non-Muslims, or unbelievers). The idea of jihad was widely used by the ruling strata of Muslim feudal society to inflame fanaticism and to unify Muslims under the banner of religion. The call to jihad was often used against “external enemies” as well.

At times, under conditions of combat against colonialists, calls to jihad served the interest of defensive war and the simultaneous defense of religion, as, for example, in the Sudan during the Mahdist uprising at the end of the 19th century.

Jihad is also called ghazawat (Arabic, literally a “raid,” “campaign,” or “attack”).

In recent times in Muslim countries the jihad has been a call to war in defense of the fatherland.


Petrushevskii, I. P. Islam vlrane v VII-XV vekakh. Leningrad, 1966. Pages 80-83.
Encyclopédic de ïlslam, vol. 2. Leiden-Paris, 1965. Pages 551-53.


, jehad
1. Islam a holy war against infidels undertaken by Muslims in defence of the Islamic faith
2. Islam the personal struggle of the individual believer against evil and persecution
References in periodicals archive ?
Whenever the word FiSabeelillah is added to the words Jehad and Qital, it simply implies doing these actions in the name of and for Allah", he added.
Tarrab teased his way down the left and fired over a left foot cross which found Jehad Al Hussein unmarked at the far post to stab home from six yards.
Prizewinner Michael Pink with, from left, the Daily Post's David Charters, runner-up Elizabeth Houghton, and organiser Frank Moran Pictures: MARTIN BIRCHALL' The winners line up at the Athenaeum: from left, Jehad Jaffer, Nardeen Nermat, Emma Jones, Martin Lloyd, Elizabeth Houghton and Michael Pink
Refusing to be deterred, Jo, Donya and Paul returned and tried to reason with Jehad.
Jehad Obeid (22) this morning was announced dead of seriouswounds that he sustained on Friday evening, during clashes on the Gaza borders with Nahal Oz illegal settlement.
Today the proud tales of spirit of Jehad and bravery of heroes like Major Aziz Bhatti Shaheed, Flight Lieutenant Younas Hassan Shaheed, Brig.
By adopting iman, taqwa, jehad fi sabelillah as the fighting motto for our forces then we paved way for the privatization of jehad in the country and its devastating consequences.
T HE attack and brutal murder of journalists in Paris signals the new face of global jehad.
Regarding two specific cases mentioned in the Amnesty statement, the incident involving Jehad Nabeel Al Samee' and Abdullah Yousif Al Bahran is currently under investigation by the Ombudsman.
Summary: As part of its commitment to strengthening cooperation with all government entities and organisations operating in the UAE, the Telecommunications Regulatory Authority (TRA) received a delegation from the Dubai Chamber of Commerce and Industry headed by Jehad Kazim, director of legal services.
Said Jehad Kazim, Director, Legal Services Department, Dubai Chamber, In light of the increasing popularity of mediation in resolving disputes amicably by companies in the region through alternative means, we organised this training course for our staff members and those working in the dispute resolution to learn dispute management in accordance with the best international practices in mediation.
Saeed Al-Yamani, Abdulrahman Askar, Jaffar Al-Qassab, Jehad Khalifa, the Interior Ministry's representative Lt-Colonel Khalid Al-Khayyat, the Ministry of Health's representative Mohammed Abdulrahim; and, the Public Works Ministry representative ghazi Al-Saleh.