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The sense of position and movement of the limbs and the sense of muscular tension. The awareness of the orientation of the body in space and the direction, extent, and rate of movement of the limbs depend in part upon information derived from sensory receptors in the joints, tendons, and muscles. Information from these receptors, called proprioceptors, is normally integrated with that arising from vestibular receptors (which signal gravitational acceleration and changes in velocity of movements of the head), as well as from visual, auditory, and tactile receptors. Sensory information from certain proprioceptors, particularly those in muscles and tendons, need not reach consciousness, but can be used by the motor system as feedback to guide postural adjustments and control of well-practiced or semiautomatic movements such as those involved in walking.

Receptors for proprioception are the endings of peripheral nerve fibers within the capsule or ligaments of the joints or within muscle. These endings are associated with specialized end organs such as Pacinian corpuscles, Ruffini's cylinders, and Golgi organs (the latter resembling histologic Golgi structures in the skin), and muscle spindles. See Cutaneous sensation, Sensation, Somesthesis


The reception of internal stimuli.
Sensory awareness of one's location with regard to the external environment.
References in periodicals archive ?
In the group of expert climbers, favourable relationships were recorded between effectiveness of climbing and speed, accuracy and precision of movements (test time) and spatial-dynamic kinaesthetic differentiation ability (for the parameters of test time and number of errors).
Compared to other athletes, a "model climber" obtained best scores in tests that evaluated spatial-dynamic kinaesthetic differentiation (z = -1.
Again, compared to students, the "model climber" obtained the best scores in the test that evaluated dynamic-spatial kinaesthetic differentiation ability.
Similar to spatial orientation, this ability is largely determined by kinaesthetic and optical information.
For Merleau-Ponty, recognizing oneself in a mirror is possible only if one has a kinaesthetic body.
391), so the kinaesthetic (proprioceptive) and visual are never differentiated (and thus one cannot represent the other).
386-387), need not recognize that the creature moving (the 'sender') experiences tactile and kinaesthetic feelings.
Jowdy, Murphy & Durtschi (1989) have proposed that external imagery may have more error detection and analytic properties, and may therefore be used early in motor skill development; whereas internal imagery may be used later in skill development when the athlete has improved kinaesthetic abilities and internal representations of the skill.
Subjects were also asked if they had experienced any kinaesthetic sensations during imagery, and to say how appropriate they felt the treatment had been for the task (a rating score out of 10).
Concomitant kinaesthetic imagery was reported by both treatment groups.