kindergarten

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kindergarten

[Ger.,=garden of children], system of preschool education. Friedrich FroebelFroebel, Friedrich Wilhelm August
, 1782–1852, German educator and founder of the kindergarten system. He had an unhappy childhood and very little formal schooling, learning what he could from wide reading and close observation of nature; he studied for a short time at the
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 designed (1837) the kindergarten to provide an educational situation less formal than that of the elementary school but one in which children's creative play instincts would be organized constructively. Through the use of songs, stories, games, simple manual materials, and group activities for which the furnishings of a kindergarten are adapted, children develop habits of cooperation and application, and the transition from home to school is thought to be made less formidable.

The theory implicit in the kindergarten system, that education develops through expression and social cooperation, has greatly influenced elementary education and parent educationparent education,
movement to help parents' understanding of the problems of children at home and in the school. Much parent education is carried on through the channels of adult education, both formally and informally.
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, especially in the United States, where kindergartens are generally a part of public school systems. The first kindergarten in America was founded (1856) at Watertown, Wis., by Margaretta Schurz, wife of Carl SchurzSchurz, Carl
, 1829–1906, American political leader, b. Germany. He studied at the Univ. of Bonn and participated in the revolutionary uprisings of 1848–49 in Germany.
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. It was followed by a school opened (1861) by Elizabeth Peabody in Boston and by a public kindergarten established (1873) in St. Louis by Susan Blow.

See also nursery schoolnursery school,
educational institution for children from two to four years of age. It is distinguishable from a day nursery in that it serves children of both working and nonworking parents, rarely receives public funds, and has as its primary objective to promote the social
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.

Bibliography

See C. Goode, World of Kindergarten (1970); W. Barbe, Basic Skills in Kindergarten (1980); S. Stuart, Teaching and Reaching (1983); B. Spodek, Today's Kindergarten (1986); N. Brosterman, Inventing Kindergarten (1997).

kindergarten

a class or small school for young children, usually between the ages of four and six to prepare them for primary education. Often shortened (in Australia) to kinder or (in Australia and New Zealand) to kindy or kindie
References in classic literature ?
Why, she makes pies--sartin she does; but what kinder crust?
What does get into ladies sometimes, I don't know; but, sometimes, when a body has de heaviest kind o' 'sponsibility on 'em, as ye may say, and is all kinder `seris' and taken up, dey takes dat ar time to be hangin' round and kinder interferin'
why, she kinder larfed in her eyes--dem great handsome eyes o' hern; and, says she, `Well, Aunt Chloe, I think you are about in the right on 't,' says she; and she went off in de parlor.
Although she had just said he was better and kinder than she, in the rapid glance she flung at him, taking in his whole figure in all its details, feelings of repulsion and hatred for him and jealousy over her son took possession of her.
Yes," says the duke, kinder slow and deliberate and sarcastic, "WE did.
Their backs had been made familiar with the bloody lash, so that they had become callous; mine was yet tender; for while at Baltimore I got few whip- pings, and few slaves could boast of a kinder master and mistress than myself; and the thought of pass- ing out of their hands into those of Master Andrew-- a man who, but a few days before, to give me a sample of his bloody disposition, took my little brother by the throat, threw him on the ground, and with the heel of his boot stamped upon his head till the blood gushed from his nose and ears--was well calculated to make me anxious as to my fate.
Peter Dickson Kinder of Missouri has been appointed Alternate Federal Co-Chairperson of the Delta Regional Authority.
Those agencies had shared the brief since February 2013, when Grey won Ferrero's full Kinder line (Kinder Chocolate, Kinder Joy, Kinder Country, Kinder Bueno, Kinder Schoko-Bons) and its Pra- lines range (Ferrero Rocher and Raffaello).
2 February 2016 - US-based energy infrastructure company Kinder Morgan, Inc.
uk he tragic story of World War One soldier Sgt Stuart Kinder sums up the terrible waste of war.
Kinder Morgan will own a 75% interest in the JV, with BP owning the balance.
s petroleum services group said it sold two Jones Act tankers to pipeline giant Kinder Morgan Energy Partners LP for about $270 million, reports Caribbean Business (Nov.