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[Ger.,=garden of children], system of preschool education. Friedrich FroebelFroebel, Friedrich Wilhelm August
, 1782–1852, German educator and founder of the kindergarten system. He had an unhappy childhood and very little formal schooling, learning what he could from wide reading and close observation of nature; he studied for a short time at the
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 designed (1837) the kindergarten to provide an educational situation less formal than that of the elementary school but one in which children's creative play instincts would be organized constructively. Through the use of songs, stories, games, simple manual materials, and group activities for which the furnishings of a kindergarten are adapted, children develop habits of cooperation and application, and the transition from home to school is thought to be made less formidable.

The theory implicit in the kindergarten system, that education develops through expression and social cooperation, has greatly influenced elementary education and parent educationparent education,
movement to help parents' understanding of the problems of children at home and in the school. Much parent education is carried on through the channels of adult education, both formally and informally.
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, especially in the United States, where kindergartens are generally a part of public school systems. The first kindergarten in America was founded (1856) at Watertown, Wis., by Margaretta Schurz, wife of Carl SchurzSchurz, Carl
, 1829–1906, American political leader, b. Germany. He studied at the Univ. of Bonn and participated in the revolutionary uprisings of 1848–49 in Germany.
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. It was followed by a school opened (1861) by Elizabeth Peabody in Boston and by a public kindergarten established (1873) in St. Louis by Susan Blow.

See also nursery schoolnursery school,
educational institution for children from two to four years of age. It is distinguishable from a day nursery in that it serves children of both working and nonworking parents, rarely receives public funds, and has as its primary objective to promote the social
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See C. Goode, World of Kindergarten (1970); W. Barbe, Basic Skills in Kindergarten (1980); S. Stuart, Teaching and Reaching (1983); B. Spodek, Today's Kindergarten (1986); N. Brosterman, Inventing Kindergarten (1997).


a class or small school for young children, usually between the ages of four and six to prepare them for primary education. Often shortened (in Australia) to kinder or (in Australia and New Zealand) to kindy or kindie
References in periodicals archive ?
Discourses underlying five of Sutton-Smith's rhetorics of play (rhetoric of play as progress, rhetoric of the self, rhetoric of the imaginary, rhetoric of identity, and rhetoric of frivolity) have been particularly influential in the development of kindergarten curricula and in shaping the views of educators, school administrators, and parents of kindergarten-aged children in the five provinces in which we live and work.
The ministry demanded all kindergartens to correct violations or else they will face legal action that includes revoking their licence.
John Kitzhaber's proposed budget would support kindergarten at a level that would allow an average class size of about 21 students.
The Vice Prime Minister ordered to expedite work on re-nationalization of kindergartens and to regulate issues with building owners in line with the legislation at the conclusion of the government meeting.
The Kindergarten principal said that the nanny had neglected searching the kindergarten building for any uncollected kids by their families before leaving the kindergarten.
Quijano clarified that while the DepEd required only one year of kindergarten, parents who can afford private day care centers or preschools can have their children start school as young as 3 or 4 years old to prepare them for regular schooling.
She said Massachusetts is one of only 14 states that allow school districts to charge tuition for kindergarten.
Many state governments have only recently introduced state grants for school districts that operate kindergarten programs.
Despite the substantial body of literature on retention and its relationship to student achievement and drop-out rates, research on teacher perceptions of kindergarten student retention as an intervention has yet to be explored.
She intends to serve as a substitute teacher when needed in kindergarten and first grade, to go fishing with her husband, Jack, on their boat that they have moored in a Ventura marina, and to continue selling antique collectibles at the Prairie Peddler in Quartz Hill.
The beauty of the Alberta kindergarten curriculum is that it can co-ordinate the student's learning around themes that capture the interest of 4 and 5 year-old students in the classroom.

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