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[Ger.,=garden of children], system of preschool education. Friedrich FroebelFroebel, Friedrich Wilhelm August
, 1782–1852, German educator and founder of the kindergarten system. He had an unhappy childhood and very little formal schooling, learning what he could from wide reading and close observation of nature; he studied for a short time at the
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 designed (1837) the kindergarten to provide an educational situation less formal than that of the elementary school but one in which children's creative play instincts would be organized constructively. Through the use of songs, stories, games, simple manual materials, and group activities for which the furnishings of a kindergarten are adapted, children develop habits of cooperation and application, and the transition from home to school is thought to be made less formidable.

The theory implicit in the kindergarten system, that education develops through expression and social cooperation, has greatly influenced elementary education and parent educationparent education,
movement to help parents' understanding of the problems of children at home and in the school. Much parent education is carried on through the channels of adult education, both formally and informally.
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, especially in the United States, where kindergartens are generally a part of public school systems. The first kindergarten in America was founded (1856) at Watertown, Wis., by Margaretta Schurz, wife of Carl SchurzSchurz, Carl
, 1829–1906, American political leader, b. Germany. He studied at the Univ. of Bonn and participated in the revolutionary uprisings of 1848–49 in Germany.
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. It was followed by a school opened (1861) by Elizabeth Peabody in Boston and by a public kindergarten established (1873) in St. Louis by Susan Blow.

See also nursery schoolnursery school,
educational institution for children from two to four years of age. It is distinguishable from a day nursery in that it serves children of both working and nonworking parents, rarely receives public funds, and has as its primary objective to promote the social
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See C. Goode, World of Kindergarten (1970); W. Barbe, Basic Skills in Kindergarten (1980); S. Stuart, Teaching and Reaching (1983); B. Spodek, Today's Kindergarten (1986); N. Brosterman, Inventing Kindergarten (1997).


a class or small school for young children, usually between the ages of four and six to prepare them for primary education. Often shortened (in Australia) to kinder or (in Australia and New Zealand) to kindy or kindie
References in periodicals archive ?
In the kindergarten classroom, the researcher observed a lot of fantasy literature.
In addition, more and more kindergartens are accepting 3-year-olds, who require more attention than 4-year-olds and 5-year-olds, the traditional age of kindergarten pupils.
The ground floor of the kindergarten is divided by a spacious, skylit corridor animated by a rhythm of ceiling joists.
According to the teachers who were surveyed, children entering kindergarten are weakest academically in their knowledge of the alphabet and phonics, with two-thirds of teachers reporting that the majority of children do not know their alphabet when they enter kindergarten.
The kindergarten conferences have been carefully designed to combine deep insight into kindergarten instruction with an eye to the emotional, social, cognitive, and physical development needs of kindergarteners.
Vice mayor also noted the lack of schools and kindergartens both in Bishkek and its residential areas.
She said Massachusetts is one of only 14 states that allow school districts to charge tuition for kindergarten.
The only way to increase academic outcomes for our graduating seniors is to increase the academic achievement in the lower elementary grades and kindergarten.
However, when the number of kindergartens had grown, some early childhood educators began questioning the Froebelian-oriented kindergarten practice and the curriculum similar to that of elementary schools.
She intends to serve as a substitute teacher when needed in kindergarten and first grade, to go fishing with her husband, Jack, on their boat that they have moored in a Ventura marina, and to continue selling antique collectibles at the Prairie Peddler in Quartz Hill.
A total of 138 kindergartners, enrolled in one of the elementary school's kindergarten classrooms during the 2002/2003 or 2003/2004 school years, acted as the study's subjects.
Started in 2003 and funded by a three-year, $3 million federal grant, the program approaches kindergarten readiness comprehensively--by improving teacher training, reshaping classrooms and curriculum, supporting parents as children's first teachers and building relationships between the district and preschools.

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