kindergarten

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kindergarten

[Ger.,=garden of children], system of preschool education. Friedrich FroebelFroebel, Friedrich Wilhelm August
, 1782–1852, German educator and founder of the kindergarten system. He had an unhappy childhood and very little formal schooling, learning what he could from wide reading and close observation of nature; he studied for a short time at the
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 designed (1837) the kindergarten to provide an educational situation less formal than that of the elementary school but one in which children's creative play instincts would be organized constructively. Through the use of songs, stories, games, simple manual materials, and group activities for which the furnishings of a kindergarten are adapted, children develop habits of cooperation and application, and the transition from home to school is thought to be made less formidable.

The theory implicit in the kindergarten system, that education develops through expression and social cooperation, has greatly influenced elementary education and parent educationparent education,
movement to help parents' understanding of the problems of children at home and in the school. Much parent education is carried on through the channels of adult education, both formally and informally.
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, especially in the United States, where kindergartens are generally a part of public school systems. The first kindergarten in America was founded (1856) at Watertown, Wis., by Margaretta Schurz, wife of Carl SchurzSchurz, Carl
, 1829–1906, American political leader, b. Germany. He studied at the Univ. of Bonn and participated in the revolutionary uprisings of 1848–49 in Germany.
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. It was followed by a school opened (1861) by Elizabeth Peabody in Boston and by a public kindergarten established (1873) in St. Louis by Susan Blow.

See also nursery schoolnursery school,
educational institution for children from two to four years of age. It is distinguishable from a day nursery in that it serves children of both working and nonworking parents, rarely receives public funds, and has as its primary objective to promote the social
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.

Bibliography

See C. Goode, World of Kindergarten (1970); W. Barbe, Basic Skills in Kindergarten (1980); S. Stuart, Teaching and Reaching (1983); B. Spodek, Today's Kindergarten (1986); N. Brosterman, Inventing Kindergarten (1997).

kindergarten

a class or small school for young children, usually between the ages of four and six to prepare them for primary education. Often shortened (in Australia) to kinder or (in Australia and New Zealand) to kindy or kindie
References in periodicals archive ?
From a teacher's prospective, the approach of the program is ideal for kindergarteners.
It's hard for kindergarteners to sit in a classroom for six hours," she said.
Three kindergarteners are believed to have been slightly injured in the accident, which occurred in a residential area about 700 meters from Yaguchinowatashi railway station on Tokyu Tamagawa Line, it said.
I do wonder at the end of each year if I have adequately prepared my kindergarteners to succeed in first grade.
As a result of these initial conversations with students and colleagues, my primary focus and question evolved to: What happens when kindergarteners are invited to assess their own learning?
Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS[TM]) assessments over the past two years indicate that more than 51 percent of kindergarteners have shown improvement in letter naming fluency and phoneme segmentation fluency, which are key indicators of reading success.
The day was a tremendous hit with both the kindergarteners and their parents.
CUTLINE: (1) At top, Andrea Proulx rides the bus with her daughter, Gabrielle, 5, during an open house for incoming kindergarteners at Naquag Elementary School.
The California Department of Education requires kindergarteners to know how to write a complete sentence, count to 30 and spell short-vowel words by the time they enter first grade.
At Walnut Canyon Elementary in Moorpark, kindergarteners are full-time students.
Parents of kindergarteners and all other students new this fall to any school district in California must present proof of immunizations against several communicable diseases before their children can attend classes.
New kindergarteners and first-graders who have never attended kindergarten must also have the written results of a Mantoux test for tuberculosis that has been completed in the past 12 months.