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[Ger.,=garden of children], system of preschool education. Friedrich FroebelFroebel, Friedrich Wilhelm August
, 1782–1852, German educator and founder of the kindergarten system. He had an unhappy childhood and very little formal schooling, learning what he could from wide reading and close observation of nature; he studied for a short time at the
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 designed (1837) the kindergarten to provide an educational situation less formal than that of the elementary school but one in which children's creative play instincts would be organized constructively. Through the use of songs, stories, games, simple manual materials, and group activities for which the furnishings of a kindergarten are adapted, children develop habits of cooperation and application, and the transition from home to school is thought to be made less formidable.

The theory implicit in the kindergarten system, that education develops through expression and social cooperation, has greatly influenced elementary education and parent educationparent education,
movement to help parents' understanding of the problems of children at home and in the school. Much parent education is carried on through the channels of adult education, both formally and informally.
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, especially in the United States, where kindergartens are generally a part of public school systems. The first kindergarten in America was founded (1856) at Watertown, Wis., by Margaretta Schurz, wife of Carl SchurzSchurz, Carl
, 1829–1906, American political leader, b. Germany. He studied at the Univ. of Bonn and participated in the revolutionary uprisings of 1848–49 in Germany.
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. It was followed by a school opened (1861) by Elizabeth Peabody in Boston and by a public kindergarten established (1873) in St. Louis by Susan Blow.

See also nursery schoolnursery school,
educational institution for children from two to four years of age. It is distinguishable from a day nursery in that it serves children of both working and nonworking parents, rarely receives public funds, and has as its primary objective to promote the social
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See C. Goode, World of Kindergarten (1970); W. Barbe, Basic Skills in Kindergarten (1980); S. Stuart, Teaching and Reaching (1983); B. Spodek, Today's Kindergarten (1986); N. Brosterman, Inventing Kindergarten (1997).


a class or small school for young children, usually between the ages of four and six to prepare them for primary education. Often shortened (in Australia) to kinder or (in Australia and New Zealand) to kindy or kindie
References in periodicals archive ?
Wetherbee feels that future volunteers and visionaries needs to be cultivated as seedlings - or, in layman's terms, kindergartners.
In general, kindergartners who attended preschool the year before kindergarten spent an average of 22 hours per week in such programs (table 2).
The development of genre moved from the fantastical notions of kindergartners to the realistic personal narratives of third graders.
For example, kindergartners and first-graders study family life, and the cabin tutors talk about how a family lived in the cabin.
Girl Scouts inviting parents, kindergartners to Daisy Days
Kindergartners talk in the classroom about how different vegetables are grown and cheese is made.
The CAP pretest and posttest was administered to 77 kindergartners (control group) in October and May of the 2002/2003 school year, respectively.
Now home to six dogs, six cats, 350+ birds, one chinchilla, 1,000 plants and, on Mondays through Fridays, 97 kindergartners, the quiet has yielded to the giggles of six-year-olds and the chirping of birds, and the sterility and boredom to the purring of cats and the wags of dogs' tails.
HEKKO Corporation, a comprehensive online learning system provider for elementary schools and the home, has already started to benefit kindergartners at Oceanside's Reynolds Elementary School with its Online Learning System.
He would have missed the other half, because Oregon requires that kindergartners attend school for only half a day.
STEVENSON RANCH - Some kindergartners hoping to learn their ABCs at Stevenson Ranch Elementary School next year may instead learn these basics elsewhere to avoid overcrowding.
The kindergartners sang a song about rainbows, and the first- and second-graders performed the ``Hookilau'' dance, Principal Nancy Oda said.