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(also kinesthesis, proprioreception, muscle sense), the ability of man and animals to perceive and evaluate change in the relative positions and in the movements of the parts of the body.

N. M. Sechenov was the first to study the relationship between information about the position in space of various parts of the body and the degree of contraction of each muscle, on the one hand, and movement regulation and learning about the environment, on the other. He referred to kinesthesia as the “dark muscle sense.” During the contraction and stretching of muscles, nerve impulses arising in the kinesthetic receptors (muscle spindles, Golgi apparatus, and possibly the pacinian corpuscles) reach the central nervous system via sensory nerve fibers. The set of peripheral and central nervous formations participating in the analysis of this information was called the motor analyzer by I. P. Pavlov. The perfection and delicacy of coordination of motor reactions, such as locomotion in man and animals, are attributable to the steady accumulation throughout life of constantly regenerated connections between the neurons of the motor analyzer and those of the other analyzers (visual, acoustic, and so forth).

Kinesthesia plays an important role in the development of perceptions because it serves as the basis for control of all the other sense organs. Thus, visual appraisal of the distance of an object as it is approached is mediated by muscle sense.


References in periodicals archive ?
Further analysis of students' perceptual preferences, as reported by their LSI printouts, revealed that 37 students scored 60 or higher--which indicates a preference for learning tactually and/or kinesthetically.
As they knowingly satisfy the rules of their franchise, they also address the viewer kinesthetically, making her newly aware of herself as viewer and connoisseur.
CaribFunk redefines Black femininity kinesthetically, thus promoting discourse concerning femaleness, sensuality, sexuality and strength.
Though it takes perhaps more work to understand kinesthetically from outside of the culture, the African diaspora is never marked as an exclusive realm but rather as a cultural milieu wherein a deeper understanding of its core principles develop over time and through self-sustained practice.
Math concepts such as rhythms and patterns can also be taught kinesthetically (Church, 2001).
Test Conjectures & Modify Technology enhances/supports Understandings students' abilities to develop and test out mathematical models in multiple ways (visually, kinesthetically, etc.
The MIQ-R is an 8-item questionnaire asking participants to first physically perform, and then visually or kinesthetically image four simple movements.
This way, students learn more about their own bodies while still learning kinesthetically.
Math: Teaching math concepts can be taught kinesthetically.
It is a matter of the greatest importance that physical education teachers in public schools recognize the significant impact they can have upon their students and their ability to discover their world kinesthetically.
So if you can understand the way your memory works and the way you take things in - either visually, audibly or kinesthetically, which means by writing things down repeatedly - then you can use that to easily remember things.