krummholz


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krummholz

[′kru̇m‚hōlts]
(ecology)
Stunted alpine forest vegetation. Also known as elfinwood.
References in periodicals archive ?
as well as by functional type: tree (> 200 cm), krummholz (mature tree < 200 cm), tall shrub (> 100 cm), medium shrub (50 to 100 cm), small shrub (25 to 50 cm), forest herb, and ground shrub (see Hofgaard and Rees, 2008 for details).
In a manner dynamically similar to stem escape from abrasive boundary layer above the krummholz mat, initial seedling establishment and continued growth is prerequisite to increases in tree density and cover that culminates in new subalpine forest microclimate (Figs.
The lowest fluxes were predicted in the upper krummholz zone (1450-1730 m).
Key words: expansion, forest-tundra ecotone, krummholz, Picea glauca, structure, species composition, tree island
Wood remains at the surface of well-drained soils have been used to evaluate the responses of tree line woodlands and krummholz to fire and climate disturbances during the last 600 yr (Payette et al.
In this area large limber pines grow on a rocky slope among standing dead limber pine snags, young living limber pines, krummholz Engelmann spruce [Picea engelmannii (Parry) Engelm.
Along with growing season conditions, winter climate can also constrain tree line expansion through damage to shoots and seedlings by wind abrasion and desiccation (Kullman, 1998; Cairns, 2001), and the krummholz form of tree line is generally associated with such winter stresses (e.
Hence, die-back along the windward sides of cushion krummholz is accompanied by leeward growth, and since the trees root along their horizontal stems, the plants are not confined to fixed locations.
Forests and krummholz (tree and stunted spruce stands, respectively) on dry-mesic sites and peatlands were mapped using aerial photographs in a 10 km wide transect from the Riviere Boniface area to the black spruce limit [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 1 OMITTED].
The central region of the park (TUND) is primarily open tundra peatlands, with forest ranging from isolated krummholz individuals to patches of open forest.
The alder, spruce, and pine tree-limits are situated 30, 50, and 100 m lower, respectively, than birch (Kullman 1986, 1992a) with krummholz of all species above the tree-limits.
Key words: persistence, krummholz, dendrochronology, tree line, forest - tundra ecotone, Mealy Mountains, Labrador, climate change, black spruce, Picea mariana