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(kīfō`səs): see hunchbackhunchback,
abnormal outward curvature of the spine in the thoracic region. It is also known as kyphosis and humpback, and in its severe form a noticeable hump is evident on the back.
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curvature of the spine in man, with the convexity of the curve posterior.

The entire spine of the newborn is arced (total physiological kyphosis). As the infant develops, physiological kyphosis arises in the thoracic and sacral sections. Kyphosis in the thoracic spine may increase dramatically by old age because of developmental changes in the intervertebral disks and a weakening of muscle tone.

Pathological kyphosis, a result of congenital abnormalities in spine development (additional wedge-shaped vertebrae or the fusion of separate vertebrae), usually appears after the age of six months, once the infant has begun to stand and walk. Kyphosis can result from rickets, spinal tuberculosis, and certain familial conditions. It can also develop in persons who sit bent over for long periods of time because of occupation or myopia. Kyphosis is treated by special gymnastic exercises and by strengthening the back muscles by massage or physical therapy. Surgery may have to be performed if more conservative treatment proves unsuccessful.


Angular curvature of the spine, usually in the thoracic region. Also known as humpback; hunchback.
References in periodicals archive ?
A high training volume while trunk is flexed, which characterises the position on the bicycle, might generate specific spinal adaptations in standing, such as higher thoracic kyphosis or reduced lumbar lordosis.
In a test conducted to study balance values within an open-eyed setting, OA, AR and ML stability indices were significantly higher in the osteoporosis group with kyphosis compared to the control group as well as to the osteoporosis group without kyphosis.
Vertebroplasty has been documented to achieve stabilization of the fracture, prevention of fracture progression, vertebral height restoration, prevention or reversal of kyphosis and excellent immediate pain relief and early mobilization.
We performed complex spinal reconstructive operations including kyphectomies in young children with congenital kyphosis and vertebral column resection for a patient with a 120[degrees] idiopathic kyphoscoliosis.
Hyperactivity and autistic retardation were reported with Lujan-Fryns syndrome, which is an X-linked mental retardation syndrome progressing with characteristics such as marfanoid habitus, joint laxity, pectus excavatum, and kyphosis.
Physical examination was remarkable only for left-sided facial swelling and thoracic kyphosis.
Physical findings in Marfan syndrome Skeletal Arm span > height Arachnodactyly Ligament laxity Kyphosis Pectus excavatum High arched palate Cardiovascular Aortic insufficiency murmur Mitral valve prolapse Ophthalmologic Lens dislocation Myopia
Anterior hemivertebrae at L1 and L2 that were displaced posteriorly resulting in mild to moderate central stenosis and focal kyphosis at the thoracolumbar junction,
The system is indicated for use in the temporary stabilization of the anterior spine during the development of cervical spinal fusions in patients with degenerative disc disease (as defined by neck pain of discogenic origin with degeneration of the disc confirmed by patient history and radiographic studies); trauma (including fractures), tumors, deformity (defined as kyphosis, lordosis, or scoliosis), pseudarthrosis, and/or failed previous fusions.
Background: It has been shown that patients with thoracic kyphosis due to osteoporosis have diminished pulmonary function.
They considered that the degenerative changes in old age (such as disk narrowing, kyphosis due to osteoporotic collapse) cause the shortening of spine and the relative descending of the conus medullaris.
Although not all vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) come to clinical attention, they are the most prevalent type of osteoporotic fractures, and may be associated with severe back pain, kyphosis, disability and even an increased risk of death.