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But that does not mean that the actions of the lame duck Federalists were justified.
As noted above, he described the lame duck appointments "as personally unkind," adding that "[i]t seemed but common justice to leave a successor free to act by instruments of his own choice.
A desire to save the nation from itself operated as the animating principle throughout the lame duck period.
70) Ratification of the twentieth amendment was universally expected to end the possibility of legislation being enacted by a lame duck Congress.
No constitutional change has ever addressed the power of the President to act during a lame duck period.
President Clinton was constitutionally barred from seeking reelection in 2000, but he kept busy throughout his lame duck period.
As Greg Sisk has recounted, in January 2001 a lame duck Clinton granted pardons to his brother, a participant in the Whitewater scandal, a wealthy businessman who was facing a new federal criminal investigation, and a cocaine dealer whose father was a major contributor to the Democratic party.
Within Illinois, Ryan's lame duck appointments provoked unqualified outrage.
The problem revealed in each of these episodes is that the actions of lame duck executives and legislators occur after the electorate exercises its constitutional opportunity to ensure the accountability of their government leaders.
109) Yet the government cannot come to a complete halt during a lame duck period.