Unless new growth can emerge from below ground, latent buds
(some plants have the capacity, many others do not) the plant will die.
And if we do it with care, it may sprout again from some of the latent buds
This process encourages the plant to make new growth elsewhere when the flow of sap is diverted to latent buds
concealed beneath the bark.
But when latent buds
are forced open beneath pruned shoots, there is actually less trunk growth on a pruned than on an unpruned tree.